• Horse;
  • neutrophil;
  • Pelger-Huët;
  • pseudo–Pelger-Huët anomaly

AbstractAbstract: A 9-year-old Arabian mare was evaluated for a 7-day history of malaise. Results of a CBC included a leukocyte concentration within the reference interval (8.4 × 103/μL, reference interval 6.0–14.0 × 103/μL) with an apparent degenerative left shift (segmented neutrophils 1.2 × 103/μL, reference interval 2.5–7.5 × 103/μL; hyposegmented neutrophils 1.8 × 103/μL, reference interval 0.0–0.2 × 103/μL). Serum clinical chemistry results included increased aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities. A presumptive diagnosis of hepatitis or cholangiohepatitis was made. The horse was treated with antimicrobials and the malaise quickly resolved. However, in a recheck CBC on day 13, the apparent degenerative left shift remained. Further evaluation of the blood smear revealed many hyposegmented granulocytes with coarse mature chromatin and normal cytoplasmic features. On the basis of the microscopic examination, the horse was diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly. The patient's offspring was subsequently also diagnosed with Pelger-Huët anomaly on the basis of blood film examination. Neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil mean nuclear scores in both affected horses (mare, range 1.5–2.6; offspring, range 1.6–3.2) were lower than those in 2 unrelated Arabian horses (range, 2.8–5.0) and 5 non-Arabian control horses (range, 2.8–5.0). Results of immunophenotyping and phagocytosis/oxidative burst assays via flow cytometry showed no difference in the expression of myeloid–specific or adhesion molecules or in neutrophil function between affected and control horses. This is the second known report of equine Pelger-Huët anomaly, both of which affected Arabian horses.