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Paraneoplastic leukocytosis in a dog with a renal carcinoma


Alessandra Ratto, National Reference Centre of Veterinary and Comparative Oncology (CEROVEC), Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle D'Aosta, Piazza Borgo Pila 39, int. 24, Torre B, 16129, Genoa, Italy


Abstract: A 7-year-old male German Shepherd dog in poor body condition had a 3-month history of intermittent hematuria. Nonregenerative anemia, mild leukocytosis, marked hypoalbuminemia, and hematuria were observed. Subsequently, marked neutrophilia and moderate monocytosis were noted; anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hematuria persisted; and the dog developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. Ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen revealed the presence of an enlarged and irregularly shaped right kidney with a large area of cavitation, and a nephrectomy was performed 30 days after initial examination. Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspirates and imprints of the right kidney revealed a neoplastic cell population suggestive of renal carcinoma. The histopathologic diagnosis was chromophobic cystic-papillary renal carcinoma. The tumor cells expressed granulocytic/macrophage-colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF), detected by immunohistochemical staining, and elaboration of GM-CSF by the tumor may have mediated the leukocytosis in this dog. Following excision of the tumor, neutrophil and monocyte counts were only mildly increased. The dog died 135 days after initial presentation, and a necropsy was not permitted. Paraneoplastic neutrophilic leukocytosis is an uncommon finding and may be caused by elaboration of CSF by neoplastic cells.