Sixteen mongrel dogs had bilateral nephrectomy and received a renal allograft from an unmatched mongrel. One group of eight dogs was treated orally with azathioprine and prednisone; another group of eight dogs was treated orally with cyclosporine and prednisone. Four dogs of each group received four blood transfusions each prior to surgery.

Mean survival time was nearly the same in the azathioprine-treated and the cyclosporine-treated dogs. Transfusions prolonged survival in the azathioprine-treated group but not in the cyclosporine-treated group. Retrospective measurement of whole blood trough cyclosporine concentrations indicated marked variation between dogs and in the same dog at different times. This variation may have influenced graft survival.

Only one dog survived the 9-month period of observation, indicating that refinements of the techniques used in this study will be required for long-term survival of renal allografts in unrelated mongrel dogs.