• Open Access

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in the Dog



Electron microscopy was used to diagnose primary ciliary dyskinesia in a litter of English pointer dogs and in a golden retriever dog. A technique of membrane solubilization, fixation, and negative staining with glutaraldehyde tannic acid identified abnormally constructed central and B microtubules in respiratory cilia from dogs with primary ciliary dyskinesia. Shortened outer dynein arms commonly associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia actually represents the absence of a specific subset of the three most peripheral components of the whole outer dynein arm structure.