The records of 361 Standardbred mares and their 1986 or 1987 foals were evaluated to identify factors associated with failure of passive transfer (FPT) of colostral antibodies in equine neonates. Sixty-five foals (18%) were classified as FPT based on a serum immunoglobulin concentration of <400 mg/dl at 24 to 36 hours of age, determined by the glutaraldehyde coagulation test. The potential association of mare-and foal-related factors with FPT were assessed by reviewing a series of multiple logistic regression models. The season in which the mare foaled and foal exam score, a subjective assessment of foal vigor, maturity, and general health, were the primary factors associated with the development of FPT. Foals with FPT were more likely (odds ratio = 3.50; 95% confidence interval = 1.81–6.68) than normal foals to require medical therapy during the first 3 months after parturition.