A disease syndrome similar to the hemolytic uremic syndrome of people is described in three dogs with acute renal failure. In each dog, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis preceded the onset of anuric acute renal failure. Evidence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (schizocytes, thrombocytopenia, and increased concentrations of fibrin split products) was present in the three dogs. Serum chemistry results showed increased concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and phosphorus. Ultrasound examination performed in one dog revealed increased echogenicity of the renal cortices. Treatment for anuric acute renal failure using a continuous dopamine and furosemide infusion established urine production in one of three dogs. Microscopic examination of tissue from the two dogs that underwent necropsy showed occlusion of the renal vasculature by fibrin thrombi consistent with microangiopathic arteriolar thrombosis. The pathophysiology and current knowledge of human hemolytic uremic syndrome is compared with hemolytic uremic syndrome in these dogs. (Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1993; 7:220–227. Copyright © 1993 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.)