An indirect platelet immunofluorescence assay (PIFA) was developed for detection of circulating antiplatelet antibody in dogs with suspected immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP). The PIFA was performed on 10 healthy dogs with normal platelet counts; 76 thrombocytopenic dogs, 20 of which were suspected of having ITP; and 18 dogs with other diseases and normal platelet counts. All normal dogs had negative test results. Fourteen (70%) of 20 dogs suspected of having ITP had positive test results. Fifteen of the remaining 56 thrombocytopenic dogs had positive test results, 9 had cancer and 6 had other immune-mediated diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, the PIFA assay seemed to be more sensitive (70%) than the megakaryocyte immunofluorescence assay (41 %) in the diagnosis of ITP. Of the 9 PIFA-positive dogs with neoplasia, 6 had lymphoproliferative disorders. The PI FA was positive in 5 of 18 diseased dogs with normal platelet counts. There was an inverse relationship between the platelet count and the intensity of fluorescence in the PIFA-positive dogs. We conclude that the PIFA is a sensitive screening method for detecting circulating antiplatelet antibody.