• Open Access

Neurotoxic Mycotoxins: A Review of Fungal Toxins That Cause Neurological Disease in Large Animals

Authors

  • Konstanze H. Plumlee,

    1. Department of Toxicology, California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Systems, Davis, CA
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    • 2

      California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Systems, PO Box 1770, Davis, CA 95617–1770

  • Francis D. Galey

    1. Department of Toxicology, California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Systems, Davis, CA
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Abstract

Five mycotoxins found in concentrates or roughages have been shown to cause neurologic disease in livestock. Fumonisin B, is produced by Fusarium moniliforme and causes leukoencephalomalacia in horses. Swainsonine and slaframine are produced by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and cause mannose accumulation and parasympathomimetic effects, respectively. Lolitrems from Acremonium lolii and paspalitrems from Claviceps paspali are tremorgens found in grasses.

Ancillary