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    Packer M. How should physicians view heart failure? The philosophical and physiological evolution of three conceptual models of the disease. Am J Cardiol 1993;72:3C11C.
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    Parmley WW. A symposium: Congestive heart failure-Advances in treatment. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:1D.
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    Braunwald E. ACE inhibitors—A cornerstone of the treatment of heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991;325:351353.
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    Consensus Trial Study Group. Effects of enalapril on mortality in severe congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1987;316:14291435.
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    Swedberg K., Kjekshus J. Effect of enalapril on mortality in congestive heart failure. Follow-up survival data from the consensus trial. Drugs 39; 1990;4952 (suppl 4).
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    Swedberg K., Eneroth P., Kjekshus J., et al. Effects of enalapril and neuroendocrine activation on prognosis in severe congestive heart failure (Follow-up of the consensus trial). Am J Cardiol 1990;66:40D45D.
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    Giles T. Enalapril in the treatment of congestive heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1990;15:S6S10 (suppl 3).
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    SOLVD Investigators. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991;325:293302.
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    Cohn JN, Johnson G., Ziesche S., et al. A comparison of enalapril with hydralazine—Isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of chronic congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1991;325:303310.
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    Miller MS, O'Grady MR, Smith FWK. Current concepts in vasodilator therapy for advanced or refractory congestive heart failure. Can Vet J 1988;29:354361.
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    Keene BW. Chronic valvular disease in the dog, in FoxPR, ed, Canine and Feline Cardiology. New York , NY , Churchill Livingston, 1988;309417.
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    Bonagura JD, Hamlin RL. Treatment of heart disease. An overview, In: KirkRW, ed. Current Veterinary Therapy IX. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders Co, 1986;319323.
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    Bonagura JD, Muir W. Vasodilator therapy, in KirkRW, ed. Current Veterinary Therapy IX. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1986;329333.
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    Knowlen GG, Kittleson MD. Captopril therapy in dogs with heart failure, in KirkRW, ed, Current Veterinary Therapy IX, Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1986;334339.
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    Tilley LP. Captopril: Is it the drug of choice in congestive heart failure? Proceedings of the Seventh Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, San Diego, CA, 1989;274275.
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    Fox PR. Cardiopulmonary Drugs I and II: Use and complications. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, San Diego, CA, 1989;295303.
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    Reed JR. Acquired valvular heart disease in the dog, in KirkRW ed. Current Veterinary Therapy X. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1989;231240.
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    Keene BW. Canine cardiomyopathy, in KirkRW, ed. Current Veterinary Therapy X, Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1989;240251.
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    Fox PR. Canine myocardial disease, in FoxPR, ed. Canine and Feline Cardiology, New York , NY : Churchill Livingston, 1988;467482.
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    Calvert CA. Update: Canine dilated cardiomyopathy, in KirkRW, BonaguraJD, eds, Current Veterinary Therapy XI. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1992;773779.
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    Rush JE. Emergency therapy and monitoring of heart failure, In: KirkRW and BonaguraJD, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy XI. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders Co, 1992;713721.
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    DeLellis LA, Kittleson MD. Current uses and hazards of vasodilator therapy in heart failure, in KirkRW, BonaguraJD, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy XI. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1992;700708.
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    Keene BW, Rush JE. Therapy of heart failure, in EttingerSW, ed. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine 3rd ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1989;939975.
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    Tilley LP. Acquired valvular heart disease, in TilleyLP, OwensJM, ed, Manual of Small Animal Cardiology. New York , NY : Churchill Livingston, 1985;115134.
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    Kittleson MD. Management of heart failure: Concepts, therapeutic strategies, and drug pharmacology, in FoxPR, ed, Canine and Feline Cardiology. New York , NY : Churchill Livingston, 1988;171204.
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    Whitney JC. Observations on the effect of age on the severity of heart valve lesions in the dog. J Small Animal Pract 1974;15:511522.
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    Buchanan JW. Causes and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, in KirkRW, BonaguraJD, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy XI. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1992;647655.
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    Fioretti M., Delli Cam E. Epidemiological survey of dilatative cardiomyopathy in dogs. Veterinaria 1988;2:81 (abstr).
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    Knight D. Pathophysiology of heart failure and clinical evaluation of cardiac function, in EttingerSJ, ed. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine 4th ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders, 1995;844867.
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    Agresti A. Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data. New York , NY : John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1984;167170.
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    SAS/STAT User's Guide, Version 6, 4th ed. Cary , NC : SAS Institute, Inc, 1989;Volume 2, 986988.
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    Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical Methods 6th ed. Ames , IA : Iowa State University Press, 1967;125128.
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    Benitz AM, Hamlin RL, Ericsson GF. Titration of enalapril dose for dogs with induced heart failure. J Vet Intern Med 1991;5: 124 (abstr).
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    Dietz R., Nagel F., Osterziel K. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and renal function in heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:119C125C.