• 1
    Kaneko JJ, Mattheeuws D., Rottiers RP, et al. Glucose tolerance and insulin response in diabetes mellitus of dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1977;18:8594.
  • 2
    Unger RH, Foster DW. Diabetes Mellitus. In: WilsonJD, FosterDW, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 7th ed. Philadelphia . WB Saunders; 1992:12551333.
  • 3
    Kirk CA, Feldman EC, Nelson RW. Diagnosis of naturally acquired type-I and type-II diabetes mellitus in cats. Am J Vet Res 1993;541 463467.
  • 4
    Gjessing HJ. C-peptide used in the estimation of islet beta-cell function in diabetes. Danish Med Bull 1992; 39:438452.
  • 5
    Rubenstein AH, Kuzuya H., Honvitz DL. Clinical significance of circulating C-peptide in diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemic disorders. Arch Intern Med 1977; 137:625632.
  • 6
    Polonsky K., Rubenstein A. C-peptide as a measure of the secretion and hepatic extraction of insulin. Diabetes 1984;33:486494.
  • 7
    Polonsky KS, Rubenstein AH. The kinetics and metabolism of insulin, proinsulin, and c-peptide. In: DeGrootLJ, ed. Endocrinology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia : WB Saunders; 1989:13041345.
  • 8
    Horowitz DL, Starr JI, Mako ME, et al. Proinsulin, insulin and C-peptide concentrations in human portal and peripheral blood. J Clin Invest 1975;55:12781283.
  • 9
    Peterson JD, Nehrlich S., Oyer PE, et al. Determination of the amino acid sequence of the monkey, sheep, and dog proinsulin C-peptides by a semi-micro edman degradation procedure. J Biol Chem 1972;247:48664871.
  • 10
    Polonsky KD, Jaspan J., Pugh H., et al. Metabolism of c-peptide in the dog-in vivo demonstration of the absence of hepatic extraction. J Clin Invest 1983;72:11141123.
  • 11
    Strack TR, Greenberg GR, Polonsky KS et al. The effect of a time delay on the characteristics of the canine glucoregulatory system. Metabolism 1990;39:12191224.
  • 12
    Pagliassotti MJ, Moore MC, Neal DW, et al. Insulin is required for the liver to respond to intraportal glucose delivery in the conscious dog. Diabetes 1992;41:12471256.
  • 13
    Alejandro R., Feldman EC, Shienvold FL, et al. Advances in canine diabetes mellitus research: Etiopathology and results of islet transplantation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 193:10501055.
  • 14
    Soon-Shiong P., Feldman EC, Nelson RW, et al. Successful reversal of spontaneous diabetes in dogs by intraperitoneal microen-capsulated islets. Transplantation 1992;54:769774.
  • 15
    Soon-Shiong P., Feldman EC, Nelson RW, et al. Long-term reversal of diabetes by the injection of immunoprotected islets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993;90:58435847.
  • 16
    Peterson ME, Altszuler N., Nichols CE. Decreased insulin sensitifity and glucose tolerance in spontaneous canine hyperadreno-corticism. Res Vet Sci 1984;35:177182.
  • 17
    Dieberg G., Sartin JL, Kemppainen RJ, et al. Effect of fasting and dexamethasone on binding of canine erythrocyte insulin receptors. Res Vet Sci 1986;40:347351.
  • 18
    Feldman EC. Hyperadrenocorticism. In, EttingerSJ, FeldmanEC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 4th ed. Philadelphia : WB Saunders Co; 1995:15381578.
  • 19
    Campbell J., Pierlussi J., Green GR. Somatotrophic diabetes: Insulin release responses to arginine and glucagon in dogs. Diabetologia 1978;15:205212.
  • 20
    Merrell R., Kakizaki K., Basadonna G. The endocrine function of heterotopic islets of Langerhans. World J Surg 1986; 10:770775.
  • 21
    Holste LC, Nelson RW, Feldman EC, et al. Effect of dry, soft-most, and canned dog foods on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 1989;50:984989.
  • 22
    Baggot JD. Principles of Drug Disposition in Domestic Animals: The Basis of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. Philadelphia : WB Saunders; 1977;144189.
  • 23
    Kuzuya H., Blix PM, Horwitz DL, et al. Determination of free and total insulin and C-peptide in insulin-treated diabetics. Diabetes 1977;26:2229.
  • 24
    Scarlett JA, Mako ME, Rubenstein AH, et al. Factitious hypoglycemia diagnosis by measurement of serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and insulin binding antibodies. N Engl J Med 1977;297:10291032.
  • 25
    Snorgaard O., Hasselstrom K., Lumholtz IB, et al. Insulidcpeptide response to intravenous glucagon: A dose-response study in normal and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Acta Endocrinol 1988;117:109115.
  • 26
    Peterson ME, Winkler B., Kintzer PP, et al. Effect of spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism on endogenous production and utilization of glucose in the dog. Domes Anim Endocrinol 1986;3:117125.
  • 27
    Wolfsheimer KJ, Peterson ME. Erythrocyte insulin receptors in dogs with spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:917921.
  • 28
    Flier JS, Minaker KL, Landsberg L., et al. Impaired in vivo insulin clearance in patients with severe target-cell resistance to insulin. Diabetes 1982;31:132135.
  • 29
    Reaven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988;37:15951607.
  • 30
    Pfeifer MA, Halter JB, Porte D. Insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus. Am J Med 1981;70:579588.
  • 31
    Sarlund H., Laakso M., Pyorala K., et al. Fasting, postprandial and postprandial plus glucagon-stimulated plasma c-peptide levels in non-insulin-dependent diabetics and in control subjects. Acta Med Scand 1987;221:377383.
  • 32
    Ahren B., Schersten B., Agardh C., et al. Immunoreactive insulin and C-peptide responses to various insulin secretion stimuli in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in control subjects during continuous glucose monitoring. Acta Med Scand 1981;210:337348.
  • 33
    Jayyab AK, Heding LG, Czyzyk A., et al. Serum C-peptide and IRI levels after administration of glucagon and glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Horm Metab Res 1982; 14:112116.
  • 34
    Gepts W., Toussaint D. Spontaneous diabetes in dogs and cats. A pathological study. Diabetologia 1967; 3:249265.
  • 35
    Eisenbarth GS. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. A chronic autoimmune disease. N Engl J Med 1986;314:13601368.
  • 36
    Rjasanowski I., Michaelis D., Keilacker H., et al. 5–year follow-up study of c-peptide secretion in newly diagnosed type I diabetics: Relations to HLA-phenotype, insulin requirement and metabolic control. Exp Clin Endocrinol 1987;89:216224.
  • 37
    Hoenig M., Dawe DL. A qualitative assay for beta cell antibodies. Preliminary results in dogs with diabetes mellitus. Vet Immunol Immunopath 1992;32:195203.
  • 38
    Unger RH, Grundy S. Hyperglycemia as an inducer as well as a consequence of impaired islet cell function and insulin resistance: Implications for the management of diabetes. Diabetologia 1985;28:119121.
  • 39
    Rossetti L., et al. Glucose toxicity. Diabetes Care 1990; 13: 610630.
  • 40
    Madsbad S., Sauerbrey N., Moller-Jensen B., et al. Outcome of the glucagon test depends upon the prevailing blood glucose concentration in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Acta Med Scand 1987;222:7174.
  • 41
    Gjessing HJ, Reinholdt B., Pedersen O. The plasma C-peptide and insulin responses to stimulation with intravenous glucagon and a mixed meal in well-controlled Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: Dependency on acutely established hyperglycemia. Diabetologia 1989;32:858863.
  • 42
    Gjessing HJ, Reinholdt B., Faber OK, et al. The effect of acute hyperglycemia on the plasma C-peptide response to intravenous glucagon or to a mixed meal in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1991;124556562.
  • 43
    Kramer JW, Nottingham S., Robinette J., et al. Inherited, early onset, insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus of Keeshond dogs. Diabetes 1980; 29:558565.
  • 44
    Atkins CE, Chin HP. Insulin kinetics in juvenile canine diabetics after glucose loading. Am J Vet Res 1983;44 596600.
  • 45
    Welborn TA, Garcia-Webb P., Bonser A. Basal C-peptide in the discrimination of Type 1 from Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1981;4:616619.
  • 46
    Gjessing HJ, Matzen LE, Froland A., et al. Correlations between fasting plasma C-peptide, glucagon stimulated plasma C-peptide, and urinary C-peptide in insulin treated diabetics. Diabetes Care 1987;10487490.
  • 47
    Binder, C., Ole K., Faber MD, et al. Residual beta-cell function and its metabolic consequences. Diabetes 1978;27:22629.
  • 48
    Beischer W., Kerner MD, Raptis S., et al. Insulin therapy in relation to circulating c-peptide levels. Diabetes 1978;27:235240.