• Open Access

Hemolysis Associated With Water Administration Using a Nipple Bottle for Human Infants in Juvenile Pygmy Goats


DVM, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164–6610.


A 4-month-old, 6.8-kg, castrated male pygmy goat was examined for recurrent episodic fever and red urine of 7 days' duration. A second, 3-month-old, 7-kg, intact female pygmy goat was presented for similar clinical signs. The red discoloration of the urine in each case was determined to be due to hemolysis with subsequent hemoglobinuria. In both cases, hemolysis and hemoglobinuria were closely associated with the goats consuming large volumes of water from a human infant's nipple bottle. A diagnosis of water intoxication-induced hemolysis and hemoglobinuria was made. Episodes of hemoglobinuria in the first case were consistently associated with dilute (specific gravity < 1.010) urine. Water intoxication has been associated with bottle-feeding in human infants and is also widely reported in human psychiatric patients. The small erythrocytes in goats appear to be the most sensitive of the domestic species to hypotonicity-induced hemolysis.