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    Snyder PS. Evaluation of the antihypertensive agent amlodipine besylate in normotensive cats and a cat with systemic hypertension. J Vet Intern Med 1994;8:147 (abstract).
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    Henik RA, Snyder PS, Volk LM. Amlodipine besylate therapy in cats with systemic arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal disease. J Vet Intern Med 1994;8:145 (abstract).
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    Snyder PS. Blinded clinical trial of amlodipine in cats with hypertension. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:139 (abstract).
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    Zipes DP. Genesis of cardiac arrhythmias: Electrophysiological considerations. In: BraunwaldE., ed. Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1997:548592.
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    Pion PD, Brown WA. Calcium channel blocking agents. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1995;17:691706.
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    Singh BN. Calcium channel blockers and adenosine as antiarrhythmic drugs. In: SinghBN, DzauVJ, VanhouttePM, WoosleyRL, eds. Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. New York , NY : Churchill Livingstone; 1994:747764.
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    Jackson CL, Bush RC, Bowyer DE. Inhibitor effect of calcium antagonists on balloon catheter-induced arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation and lesion size. Atherosclerosis 1988;69:115122.
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    Fox PR. Feline myocardial disease. In: FoxPR, ed. Canine and Feline Cardiology. New York , NY : Churchill Livingstone; 1988:435466.
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    Bright JM, Golden AL. Evidence for or against the efficacy of calcium channel blockers for management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1991;21:10231034.
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    Reams GP, Lau A., Hamory A., et al. Amlidopone therapy corrects renal abnormalities encountered in the hypertensive state. Am J Kidney Dis 1987;10:446451.
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    Licata G., Scaglione R., Ganguzza A., et al. Effects of amlodipine on renal haemodynamics in mild to moderate hypertensive patients. A randomized controlled study versus placebo. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1993; 45: 307311.
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    Johns EJ. A study of the renal actions of amlodipine in the normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rat. Br J Pharmacol 1988;94:311318.
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    Leonetti G., Rupoli L., Chianca R., et al. Acute, chronic and post withdrawal antihypertensive and renal effects of amlodipine in hypertensive patients. J Hypertens 1991;9(Suppl 6):S394S395.
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    Leonetti G., Rappelli A. Are there differences in the renal effects of calcium antagonists J Hypertens 1992;10(Suppl 1):S45S48.
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    Neumayer HH, Mihatsch MJ, Lopping A., et al. Effect of cyclosporine A on post ischemic acute renal failure in conscious dogs: Role of vasoactive renal hormones. Transplant Proc 1988;20:584594.
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    Grekas D., Alivanis P., Kalekou H., et al. Acute cyclosporine A renal dysfunction in dogs reversed by calcium antagonists and antiplatelet agents. Renal Fail 1992;14:493498.
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    Mourad G., Ribstein J., Mimran A. Converting enzyme inhibitor versus calcium antagonist in cyclosporine-treated renal transplants. Kidney Int 1993;43:419425.
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    van der Schaaf MR, Hene RJ, Floor M., et al. Hypertension after renal transplantation: Calcium channel or converting enzyme blockade Hypertension 1995;25:7781.
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    McNally PG, Feehally J. Pathophysiology of cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity: Experimental and clinical observations. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1992;7:791804.
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    Godfraind T., Mennig D., Bravo G., et al. Inhibition by amlodipine of activity evoked in human coronary arteries by endothelin, prostaglandin F and depolarization. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:581641.
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    Weir MR. Calcium channel blockers in organ transplantation: Important new therapeutic modalities. J Am Soc Nephrol 1990;1:S28S38.
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    Epstein M. Calcium antagonists and the kidney. Am J Hypertens 1993;6:251S259S.
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    Bloom ITM, Bently FR, Garrison RN. Acute cyclosporine-induced renal vasoconstriction is mediated by endothelin—1. Surgery 1993;114:480488.
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    Loutzenhiser RD, Epstein M., Fischetti F., Horton C. Effects of amlodipine on renal hemodynamics. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:12211281.
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    Kittleson M., Keene B., Pion P., Woodfield J. Verapamil administration for acute termination of supraventricular tachycardia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988;193:15251529.
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    Keefe DL, Kates RE. Myocardial disposition and cardiac pharmacodynamics of verapamil in the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1982; 220:9196.
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    McAllister RG Jr, Bourne DWA, Dittert LW. The pharmacology of verapamil I: Elimination kinetics in dogs and correlation of plasma levels with effect on the electrocardiogram. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1977;202:3844.
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    Hamlin RL. Clinical and experimental studies with verapamil in the dog. Proc 5th Bien Symp Vet Pharmacol Ther 1986:8996.
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    Gay R., Algeo S., Lee R., et al. Treatment of verapamil toxicity in intact dogs. J Clin Invest 1986;77:18051811.
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    Muir WM III, Sams RA. Pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of antiarrhythmic drugs. In: FoxPR, ed. Canine and Feline Cardiology. New York , NY : Churchill Livingstone; 1988:309333.
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    Plumb DC. Cardiovascular system drugs. In: PlumbDC, ed. Veterinary Drug Handbook. White Bear Lake , MN : Pharmavet Publishing; 1991:148150.
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    Klein HO, Kaplinsky E. Verapamil and digoxin: Their respective effects on atrial fibrillation and their interaction. Am J Cardiol 1982;50:894902.
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    Kuhlmann J. Effects of verapamil, diltiazem, and nifedipine on plasma levels and renal excretion of digitoxin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1985;38:667673.
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    Browne RK, Dimmitt DC, Miller LD, Korol B. Relationship between plasma diltiazem and cardiovascular responses in conscious dogs. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1983;5:483490.
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    Hamlin RL. Clinical use of diltiazem for dogs in atrial fibrillation. Proc Am Coll Vet Intern Med 1988:759.
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    Kittleson MD. Left ventricular function and failure—Part II. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1994;16:10011017.
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    Ware WA, Lund DD, Subieta AR, Schmid PG. Sympathetic activation in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by chronic mitral valve disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;197:14751481.
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    Piepho RW, Bloedow DC, Lacz JP, et al. Pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in selected animal species and human beings. Am J Cardiol 1982;49:525528.
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    Maskasame C., Lankford SM, Bai SA. Effects of propranolol on the disposition and negative dromotropic activity of diltiazem in the dog during multiple dosing. Drug Metab Dispos 1993;21:156161.
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    Johnson LM, Atkins CE, Keene BW, Bai SA. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional and CD-formulated diltiazem in cats. J Vet Intern Med 1996;10:316320.
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    Pion PD. Current uses and hazards of calcium channel blocking agents. In: KirkRW, BonaguraJD, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy XI: Small Animal Practice. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1992; 684688.
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    Russell LC, Rush JE. Cardiac arrhythmias in systemic disease. In: BonaguraJD, KirkRW, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy XII: Small Animal Practice. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1995:161166.
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    Maskasame C., Lankford SM, Bai SA. The effects of chronic oral diltiazem and cimetidine dosing on the pharmacokinetics and negative dromotropic action of intravenous and oral diltiazem in the dog. Biopharm Drug Dispos 1992;13:521537.
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    Watford WH, Walsh RA, O'Rourke RA. Diltiazem attenuates the inotropic and peripheral vascular effects of cardiac glycosides. Am Heart J 1989;118:738747.
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    Chandra NC, McLeod CG Jr, Hess JL. Nifedipine: A temporizing therapeutic option for the treatment of megaesophagus in adult dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1989;25:175179.
  • 68
    Kwan YW, Bangalore R., Lakitsh M., et al. Inhibition of cardiac L-type calcium channels by quaternary amlodipine: Implications for pharmacokinetics and access to dihydropyridine binding site. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1995;27:253262.
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    Yamada S., Noriaki S., Uchida S., et al. Pharmacokinetics of amlodipine and its occupancy of calcium antagonist receptors. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1994;23:466472.
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    Haria M., Wagstaff AJ. Amlodipine: A reappraisal of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in cardiovascular disease. Drugs 1995;50:560586.
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    Hoff PT, Tamura Y., Lucchesi BR. Cardioprotective effects of amlodipine in the ischemic-reperfused heart. Am J Cardiol 1989; 64: 10111161.
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    Burges R., Moisey D. Unique pharmacologic properties of amlodipine. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:2A9A.
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    Gross GJ, Farber NE, Pieper GM. Effects of amlodipine on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in dogs. Am J Cardiol 1989; 64:9411001.
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    Dunlap ED, Plowden JS, Lathrop DA, Millard RW. Hemodynamic and electrophysiologic effects of amlodipine, a new calcium channel Mocker. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:711771.
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    Dunlap ED, Matlib MA, Millard RW. Protection of regional mechanics and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by amlodipine in transiently ischemic myocardium. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:841931.
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    Stopher DA, Beresford AP, Macrae PB, Humphrey MJ. The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in humans and animals. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1988;12(Suppl 7):S55S59.
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    Meredith PA, Elliott HL. Clinical pharmacokinetics of amlodipine. Clin Pharmacokinet 1992;22:2231.
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    Abernethy DR. The pharmacokinetic profile of amlodipine. Am Heart J 1989;118:11001103.
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    Kelly JG, O'Malley K. Clinical pharmacokinetics of calcium antagonists: An update. Clin Pharmacokinet 1992;22:416433.
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    Snyder PS. Amlodipine: A randomized, blinded clinical trial in 9 cats with systemic hypertension. J Vet Intern Med 1998;12:2732.