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    Troutt F., Schurig G. Pinkeye: Facts and figures. Anim Nutr Health 1985:2835.
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    Slatter D., Edwards M. A national survey of the occurrence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Aust Vet J 1982;59:6568.
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    Slatter D., Edwards M. A national survey of the clinical features, treatment and importance of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Aust Vet J 1982;59:6972.
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    Aikman J., Selman A. Experimental production of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Vet Rec 1985;117:234239.
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    Punch P., Slatter D. A review of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Vet Bull 1984;54:193257.
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    Smith P., Blakenship T. Effectiveness of two commercial infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis vaccines. Am J Vet Res 1990; 51: 11471150.
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    Lepper A., Barton I. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: Seasonal variation in cultural, biochemical and immunoreactive properties of Moraxella bovis isolated from the eyes of cattle. Aust Vet J 1987; 64:3339.
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    Gerhardt R., Allen J. The role of face flies in an episode of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982; 180: 156159.
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    Pugh G., McDonald T. Identification of bovine carriers of Moraxella bovis by comparative cultural examinations of ocular and nasal secretions. Am J Vet Res 1986;47:23432345.
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    Pugh GW. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: Comparison of a fluorescent antibody technique and cultural isolation for the detection of Moraxella bovis in eye secretions. Am J Vet Res 1977; 38: 13491353.
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    Gil-Turnes C., Bischoff H. Comparison of the prevalence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Aberdeen Angus and Charolais cattle. 14th World Congress on Diseases of Cattle, Dublin, Ireland, 1986.
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    Hughes D., Pugh G. Effects of vaccination with a Moraxella bovis bacterin on the subsequent development of signs of corneal disease and infection with M. bovis in calves under natural environmental conditions. Am J Vet Res 1976; 37: 12911295.
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    Pugh GW. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: Evidence for genetic modulation of resistance in purebred Hereford cattle. Am J Vet Res 1986;47:885889.
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    Caspair EL, Wood PP. Eyelid pigmentation and the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Hereford-Friesian crossbred calves. Br Vet J 1980;136:210212.
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    Clegg FG, Goodall M. Breed susceptibility to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Vet Rec 1982;110:617621.
  • 26
    Powe T., Nusbaum K. Prevalence of nonclinical Moraxella bovis infections in bulls as determined by ocular culture and serum antibody titer. J Vet Diagn Invest 1992;4:7879.
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    George L., Wilson W. Antibiotic treatment of Moraxella bovis infection in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984;185:12061209.
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    George L. Clinical infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 1984;6:S712S720.
  • 29
    Sandhu T., White F. Association of pili with rough colony type of Moraxella bovis. Am J Vet Res 1974; 35: 437439.
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    Schurig G., Lighfoot D. Genotypic, phenotypic, and biological characteristics of Moraxella bovis. Am J Vet Res 1984; 45: 3539.
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    Pugh G., Hughes D. The isolation and characterization of Moraxella bovis. Am J Vet Res 1966; 27: 957962.
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    McMichael J. Bacterial differentiation within Moraxella bovis colonies growing at the interface of the agar medium with the petri dish. J Gen Microbiol 1992;138:26872695.
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    Riley W. Growth requirements for Moraxella bovis. Vet Microbiol 1984; 9: 593598.
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    Rosenbusch R. Influence of Mycoplasma preinfection on the expression of Moraxella bovis pathogenicity. Am J Vet Res 1983; 44: 16211624.
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    Rosenbusch R., Knudtson W. Bovine mycoplasmal conjunctivitis: Experimental reproduction and characterization of the disease. Cornell Vet 1980;70:307320.
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    Rosenbusch R., Ostle A. Mycoplasma bovoculi infection increases ocular colonization by Moraxella ovis in calves. Am J Vet Res 1986;47:12141216.
  • 37
    Weech G., Renshaw H. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: Bacteriologic, immunologic, and clinical responses of cattle to experimental exposure with Moraxella bovis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 1983; 6: 8194.
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    Timoney PJ. An outbreak of the conjunctiva] form of infectious bovine rhinotrachetitis virus infection. Vet Rec 1971;89:370.
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    Bowen JM. Experimental immunization of cattle against bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Tex Rep Biol Med 1970;28:531533.
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    Langford E., Dorward W. A Mycoplasma isolated from cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Can J Comp Med 1969; 33:275279.
  • 41
    Ruehl W., Marrs C. Infection rates, disease frequency, pilin gene rearrangement, and pilin expression in calves inoculated with Moraxella bovis pilin-specific isogenic variants. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 248253.
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    Lepper A., Moore L. The protective efficacy of pili from different strains of Moraxella bovis within the same serogroup against infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Vet Microbiol 1992;32:177187.
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    Jayappa H., Lehr C. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of piliated and nonpiliated phases of Moraxella bovis in calves. Am J Vet Res 1986;47:22172226.
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    Ruehl W., Marrs C. Q pili enhance the attachment of Moraxella bovis to bovine corneas in vitro. Mol Microbiol 1993;7:285288.
  • 45
    Jayappa H., Lehr C. Pili of Moraxella bovis as virulence factors and their successful use as antigens in an M. bovis bacterin. Proc Symposium Western Vet Conf, Las Vegas, NV, 1987.
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    Moore L., Lepper A. A unified serotyping scheme for Moraxella bovis. Vet Microbiol 1991; 29: 7583.
  • 47
    Arora A., Killinger A. Bacteriologic and vaccination studies in a field epizootic of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in calves. Am J Vet Res 1976;37:803805.
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    McDonald T., Pugh G. Plasmid profiles of Moraxella bovis isolates. Am J Vet Res 1986;47:964967.
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    Frank S., Gerber J. Hydrolytic enzymes of Moraxella bovis. J Clin Microbiol 1981; 13: 269271.
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    Kagonyera GM, George LW. Light and electron microscopic changes in corneas of healthy and immuno-modulated calves infected with M. bovis. Am J Vet Res 1988;49(3):386395.
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    Kagonyera GM, George LW. Cytopathic effects of M. bovis on cultured bovine neutrophils and corneal epithelial cells. Am J Vet Res 1989;50(1):1017.
  • 52
    Beard M., Moore L. Reproduction of bovine keratoconjunctivitis with a purified haemolytic and cytotoxic fraction of Moraxella bovis. Vet Microbiol 1994; 42: 1533.
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    Annuar B., Wilcox G. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin. Res Vet Sci 1985;39:241246.
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    Vogelweid CM, Miller RB. Scanning electron microscopy of bovine corneas irradiated with sun lamps and challenge exposure with M. bovis. Am J Vet Res 1986;47(2):378384.
  • 55
    Troutt F., Schurig G. Pinkeye facts and figures. Norden News 1985:2835.
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    Hughes DE, Pugh GW. Ultraviolet radiation and M. bovis in the etiology of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Am J Vet Res 1965; 26: 13311338.
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    Stanifer R., Kretzer F. Tear film. In: AndersonR. ed. Biochemistry of the Eye. San Francisco , CA : American Academy of Ophthalmologists; 1983:723.
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    Holly F., Lemp M. Tear physiology and dry eyes. Surv Ophthalmol 1977;22:6987.
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    Cotlier E. Resistance to infection of the external dry eye: The role of tears. Surv Ophthalmol 1979;24:3338.
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    van Haeringen N. Clinical biochemistry of tears. Surv Ophthalmol 1981;26:8496.
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    Brightman A., Wachsstock R. Lysozyme concentrations in the tears of cattle, goats, and sheep. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:911.
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    Padgett G., Hirsch J. Lysozyme: Its absence in tears and leukocytes of cattle. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 1967;45:569570.
  • 63
    Arora A., Killinger A. Detection of Moraxella bovis antibodies in infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis by a passive agglutination test. Am J Vet Res 1976;37:14891492.
  • 64
    Masson P., Heremans J. An iron binding protein common to many external secretions. Clin Chim Acta 1966;14:735739.
  • 65
    Broikhuyse R. Tear lactoferrin: A bacteriostatic and complexing protein. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1974;13:550554.
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    Boonstra A., Kijlstra A. The identification of transferrin, an ironbinding protein in rabbit tears. Exp Eye Res 1984;38:561567.
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    Jensen O., Gluud B. The concentration of lactoferrin in tears of normals and of diabetics. Acta Ophthalmol 1986;64:8387.
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    Seyfert H., Tuckoricz A. Structure of the bovine lactoferrin-encoding gene and its promoter. Gene 1994;143:265269.
  • 69
    Smith J., George L. Treatment of acute ocular Moraxella bovis infections in calves with a parenterally administered long-acting oxytetracycline formulation. Am J Vet Res 1985;46:804807.
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    Ellison R. The effects of lactoferrin on gram-negative bacteria. In: HutchensT., RumballS., LonnerdalB., eds. Lactoferrin: Structure and Function. New York , NY : Plenum Press; 1994:7190.
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    Schryvers A. Characterization of the transferrin and lactoferrin receptors in Haemophilus influenzae. Mol Microbiol 1988; 2: 467472.
  • 72
    Brown, MH. Moraxella bovis may use Bovine Lactoferrin as a Sole Source of Required Iron for Growth. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University; 1995. Master's Thesis (Part III).
  • 73
    Brown M., Brightman A., Fenwick B., Rider M. Identification of lactoferrin in bovine tears. Am J Vet Res 1996;57 (9):13691372.
  • 74
    Fenwick B., Rider M. Iron repressible outer membrane proteins of Moraxella bovis and demonstration of siderophore-like activity. Vet Microbiol 1996;48:315324.
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    Brown, MH. Moraxella bovis Outer Membrane Proteins Bind Bovine Lactoferrin. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University; 1995. Master's Thesis (Part IV).
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    Marioneaux S., Cohen E., Johnson A., et al. Moraxella keratitis. Cornea 1991;10:2124.
  • 77
    Friis N., Pedersen K. Isolation of Mycoplasma bovoculi from cases of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Acta Vet Scand 1979; 20:5159.
  • 78
    George K., Ardans A. Enhancement of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis by modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus vaccine. Am J Vet Res 1988;49:18001806.
  • 79
    Jackson F. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis of cattle. Am J Vet Res 1953;14:1925.
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    Bedford P. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Vet Rec 1976; 98:134135.
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    Killinger A., Helper L. A system for scoring lesions of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 1976;71:13701382.
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    Bromberg N. Bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 1981;3:S301S309.
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    Cox P. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis—Recent progress. Vet Annu 1984;24:7579.
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    Miller R., Fales W. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: An update. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract 1984;6:597608.
  • 85
    George L., Mihalyi J. Topically applied furazolidone or parenterally administered oxytetracyctine for the treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988;192:14211435.
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    Punch P., Cosat N. Plasma and tear concentrations of antibiotics administered parenterally to cattle. Res Vet Sci 1985;39:179187.
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    Abeynayake P., Cooper B. The concentration of penicillin in bovine conjunctival sac fluid as it pertains to the treatment of Moraxella bovis infection. (II) Topical application. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1989; 12: 3136.
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    Daigneault J., George L. Topically applied benzathine cloxacillin for treatment of experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Am J Vet Res 1990;51:376380.
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    Cooper B. Treatment of conjunctivo-keratitis of cattle and sheep with ethidium bromide. Vet Rec 1960;72:589594.
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    George L., Smith J. Treatment of Moraxella bovis infections in calves using a long-acting oxytetracycline formulation. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1985;8:5561.
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    George LW. Antibiotic treatment of infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis. Cornell Vet 1990;80 (3):229234.
  • 92
    George LW, Smith JA. Distribution of oxytetracycline in ocular tissues of calves. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1985;8:4754.
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    Edmondson AJ, George LW. Survival analysis of corneal ulcer healing times in calves with naturally acquired infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Am J Vet Res 1989;50 (6):838844.
  • 94
    Pedersen K. Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis in Cattle. Copenhagen, Denmark: University of Denmark; 1973. Thesis.
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    Punch PI, Costa ND. The release of insoluble antibiotics from collagen ocular inserts in vitro and their insertion into the conjunctival sac of cattle. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1987;10:3742.
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    Vandergaast N., Rosenbusch R. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis epizootic associated with area-wide emergence of a new Moraxella bovis pilus type. Am J Vet Res 1989;50:14371441.
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    Pugh G., McDonald T. Experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: Potentiation of Moraxella bovis pilus vaccine's immunogenicity by vaccination with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacterin. Am J Vet Res 1978;39:16561661.
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    Johansen K., Wannemuehler M. Biological reactivity of Moraxella bovis lipopolysaccharide. Am J Vet Res 1951;51:4651.
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    Moore L., Rutter J. Attachment of Moraxella bovis to calf corneal cells and inhibition by antiserum. Aust Vet J 1989;66:3942.
  • 100
    Lepper AD, Elleman TC. A Moraxella bovis pili vaccine produced by recombinant DNA technology for the prevention of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Vet Microbiol 1993;36:175183.
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    Smith P., Greene W. Antibodies related to resistance in bovine pinkeye. Calif Vet 1989;14:79.
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    Maidment D., Batty D. Changes in titers of Moraxella bovis-specific IgG in growing cattle. Br Vet J 1986;142:6570.
  • 103
    Nayar P., Saunders J. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis II. Antibodies in lacrimal secretions of cattle naturally or experimentally infected with Moraxella bovis. Can J Comp Med 1975; 39: 3240.