Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the lung was performed on 16 dogs and 3 cats with consolidated pulmonary lesions or masses identified on thoracic radiographs. The cytologic results from the FNA were confirmed by histopathology, response to treatment, or microscopic identification of Blastomyces organisms. Neoplasia was identified correctly by FNA cytology in 10 of 11 animals, and no false positive results occurred, yielding a positive predictive value of 100%. Of 8 animals with infectious disease, 5 of 6 had blastomycosis and 1 had a bacterial infection, based on cytologic evaluation. Eight animals required sedation for the procedure, and none had clinical complications. We conclude that ultrasound-guided FNA of pulmonary mass lesions is an inexpensive, safe, and accurate method for diagnosing blastomycosis or neoplasia, especially carcinomas, in dogs and cats.