• 1
    Roberts HR, Cederbaum AI. The liver and blood coagulation: physiology and pathology. Gastroenterology 1972;63:297320.
  • 2
    Aledort LM. Blood clotting abnormalities in liver disease. Prog Liver Dis 1976;5:350362.
  • 3
    Kelly DA, Summerfield JA. Hemostasis in liver disease. Semin Liver Dis 1987;7:182191.
  • 4
    Blanchard RA, Furie BC, Jorgensen M., et al. Acquired vitamin K-dependent carboxylation deficiency in liver disease. N Engl J Med 1981;305:242248.
  • 5
    Ewe K. Bleeding after liver biopsy does not correlate with indices of peripheral coagulation. Dig Dis Sci 1981;26:388393.
  • 6
    Center SA, Crawford MA, Guida OL, et al. A retrospective study of 77 cats with severe hepatic lipidosis. J Vet Intern Med 1993;7:349359.
  • 7
    Peterson JL, Cuoto CG, Wellman ML. Hemostatic disorders in cats: a retrospective study and review of the literature. J Vet Intern Med 1995;9:298303.
  • 8
    Lisciandro SC, Hohenhaus A., Brooks M. Coagulation abnormalities in 22 cats with naturally occurring liver disease. J Vet Intern Med 1998; 12:7175.
  • 9
    Mischke R., Deniz A., Nolte I. Influence of sample predilution on the sensitivity of prothrombin time in feline plasma. Zentralbl Veter-inarmed 1996;43:155162.
  • 10
    Mischke R., Nolte I. Optimization of prothrombin time measurements in canine plasma. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:236241.
  • 11
    Owren PA. Thrombotest: A new method for controlling anticoagulant therapy. Lancet 1959;2:754758.
  • 12
    Hemker HC, Muller AD. Kinetic aspects of the interaction of blood clotting enzymes: VI. Localization of the site of blood-coagulation inhibition by the protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIV-KA). Thromb Diath Haemorrh 1968;20:7887.
  • 13
    Mount ME. Proteins induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists “PIVKA”. In: KirkRW, ed. Current Veterinary Therapy IX. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1986: 513515.
  • 14
    Koller F. Theory and experience behind the use of coagulation tests in diagnosis and prognosis of liver disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1973; 8(Suppl):19:51–61.
  • 15
    Badylak SF, Van Vleet JE. Alterations of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in dogs with hepatic disease. Am J Vet Res 1981;42:20532056.
  • 16
    Greene CE, Tsang VCW, Prestwood AK, et al. Coagulation studies of plasmas from healthy domesticated animals and persons. Am J Vet Res 1981;42:21702177.
  • 17
    Deutsch E. Blood coagulation changes in liver diseases. Prog Liver Dis 1965;2:6983.
  • 18
    Slaastad RA, Godal HC. Discrepancy between Thrombotest and Normotest—an indicator of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Scand J Haematol 1972;9:411416.
  • 19
    Schleider MA, Nachman RL, Joffe EA, et al. A clinical study of the lupus anticoagulant. Blood 1976;48:499509.
  • 20
    Green D., Lechner K. A survey of 215 nonhemophilic patients with inhibitors to factor VIII. Thromb Haemostasis 1981;45:200203.
  • 21
    Alperin JB. Coagulopathy caused by vitamin K deficiency in critically ill, hospitalized patients. JAMA 1987;258:19161919.
  • 22
    Ferland G., Sadowski JA, O'Brien ME. Dietary induced sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency in normal human subjects. J Clin Invest 1993;91:17611768.
  • 23
    Booth SL, Suttie JW. Dietary intake and adequacy of vitamin K. J Nutr 1988;128:785788.
  • 24
    Center SA, Baldwin BH, King JM, et al. Hematologic and biochemical abnormalities associated with induced extrahepatic bile duct obstruction in the cat. Am J Vet Res 1983;44:18221829.
  • 25
    Center SA. Feline cholangitis/cholangiohepatitis. 15th Ann Vet Med Forum ACVIM, Lake Buena Vista, FL, May 1997.
  • 26
    Malia RG, Preston FE, Holdsworth CD. Clinical responses to vitamin K1 In: SuttieJW, ed. Vitamin K Metabolism and Vitamin K-Dependent Proteins. Baltimore , MD : University Park Press; 1980: 342347.
  • 27
    Furie B. Disorders of hemostasis-acquired disorders of coagulation. Disorders of the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. In: WilliamsWJ, BeutlerE., ErslevAJ, et al, eds. Hematology. 3rd ed. New York , NY : McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1983: 14211423.
  • 28
    Triplet DA. Laboratory evaluation of coagulation. Chicago , IL : American Society of Clinical Pathologists Press; 1982: 352.
  • 29
    Hart SW, Nolte I. Hemostatic disorders in feline immunodeficiency virus—seropositive cats. J Vet Intern Med 1994;8:355362.
  • 30
    Green RA, White E. Feline factor XII (Hageman) deficiency. Am J Vet Res 1977;38:893895.
  • 31
    Krasinski SD, Russell RM, Furie BC, et al. The prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:639643.
  • 32
    Edwards DF, Russell RG. Probable vitamin K deficient bleeding in two cats with malabsorptive syndrome secondary to lymphoplas-macytic enteritis. J Vet Intern Med 1987;1:97101.
  • 33
    Perry LA, Williams DA, Pidgeon G. Feline exocrine pancreatic insufficiency associated with a coagulopathy. J Vet Int Med 1989; 3: 134 (abstract).
  • 34
    Shirakawa H., Komai M., Kimua S.: Antibiotic-induced vitamin K deficiency and the role of the presence of intestinal flora. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1990;60:245251.