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Keywords:

  • Angiogenesis inhibitors;
  • Interferon;
  • Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors;
  • Minocycline;
  • Muramyl tripeptide-phos-phatidylethanolamine;
  • Thalidomide

Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an aggressive and malignant neoplasia with a grave prognosis. Surgery and chemotherapy have limited success in prolonging survival times and increasing quality of life in dogs with HSA. Advances in medical oncology are resulting in increased survival rates and a better quality of life for veterinary cancer patients. An understanding of mechanisms of metastasis has led to the development of new treatments designed to delay or inhibit tumor spread. Promising new treatment options include novel delivery systems (inhalation or intracavitary chemotherapy); use of immunomodulators such as liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine; antimetastatic agents such as inhibitors of angiogenesis (interferons, thalidomide), matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and minocycline; dietary modifications; and gene therapy. Inhibitors of angiogenesis seem to be safe and, unlike conventional chemotherapy, do not induce drug resistance. Although many of the newer approaches are still under development and review, the use of multimodality therapy incorporating innovative treatment modalities may offer the best therapeutic option for dogs affected with HSA.