Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a common cause of death in cats. Management of this disease has been hampered by difficulties identifying the infection and determining the immunological status of affected cats and by high variability in the clinical, pathological, and immunological characteristics of affected cats. Neurological FIP, which is much more homogeneous than systemic effusive or noneffusive FIP, appears to be a good model for establishing the basic features of FIP immunopathogenesis. Very little information is available about the immunopathogenesis of neurologic FIP, and it is reasonable to use research from the well-characterized mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) immune-mediated encephalitis system, as a template for FIP investigation, and to contrast findings from the MHV model with those of FIP. It is expected that the immunopathogenic mechanisms will have important similarities. Such comparative research may lead to better understanding of FIP immunopathogenesis and rational prospects for management of this frustrating disease.