• Angiography;
  • Catheter intervention;
  • Congenital heart disease;
  • Echocardiography

Transvenous embolization of small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA; ≤ 4 mm) with a single detachable coil was attempted in 24 dogs (median age 5.7 months, range, 2.6–65.5 months; median body weight 5.5 kg, range, 1.5–30.0 kg). Angiographic imaging of the duct and pressure measurements were made before and after embolization. The minimal ductal diameter was 2.7 ± 0.7 mm. In all dogs, a single coil was employed regardless of residual shunting. Ten dogs (PDA minimal diameter range, 1.5-2.2 mm) received a 5-mm coil, and 14 dogs (PDA minimal diameter range, 2.9-3.6 mm) received a 8-mm coil. After coil embolization the angiographic shunt grade decreased significantly (n = 20, P < .001). Residual shunts were assessed by angiography 15 minutes after and by Doppler echocardiography 1–3 days and 3 months after the intervention. In the dogs treated with the 5-mm coils the residual shunt rate was low (0%, 10%, and 0% for angiography and Doppler echocardiography at 1–3 days and 3 months, respectively), in contrast to the dogs treated with the 8-mm coils (91%, 79%, and 67% for angiography and Doppler echocardiography at 1–3 days and 3 months, respectively). After 3 months, no residual murmur was found in dogs treated with the 5-mm coils (0/7), in contrast to murmurs in 5 of 12 (42%) dogs treated with the 8-mm coils. Despite incomplete closure in these dogs, volume loading of the left heart decreased in all dogs. Pulmonic or aortic coil embolism did not occur. Analysis of initial results shows that single detachable coil embolization is possible in all dogs with a small PDA (≤ 4 mm), but only very small PDA (s 2.5) could be treated effectively, and for the moderate PDA (2.6-4.0 mm) longer coils or multiple coils may be necessary to achieve complete occlusion.