• 1
    Yamaguchi RA, French TW, Simpson CF. Leishmania donovani in the synovial fluid of a dog with visceral leishmaniasis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1983;19:723726.
  • 2
    Schaer M, Meyer DJ, Young DG. A dual infection of Leishmania and Ehrlichia canis in a dog. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 1985;7:531534.
  • 3
    Huss BT, Ettinger SJ. Visceral leishmaniasis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and von Willebrand's disease in a Giant Schnauzer. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1992;28:221225.
  • 4
    Lester SJ, Kenyon JE. Use of allopurinol to treat visceral leishmaniasis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:615617.
  • 5
    Anderson DC, Buckner RG, Glenn BL, et al. Endemic canine leishmaniasis. Vet Pathol 1980;17:9496.
  • 6
    Sellon RK, Menard MM, Meuten DJ, et al. Endemic visceral leishmaniasis in a dog from Texas. J Vet Intern Med 1993;7:1619.
  • 7
    Swenson CL, Sliverman J, Stromburg PC, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in an English foxhound from an Ohio research colony. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988;193:10891092.
  • 8
    World Health Organization. WHO Fact Sheet Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar). Geneva , Switzerland : World Health Organization; 2000.
  • 9
    Kordick SK, Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, et al. Coinfection with multiple tick-borne pathogens in a Walker hound kennel in North Carolina. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:26312638.
  • 10
    Breitschwerdt EB, Hegarty BC, Hancock SI. Sequential evaluation of dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaf-feensis, Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Bartonella vinsonii. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:26452651.
  • 11
    Kagan IG. Serodiagnosis of parasitic diseases. In: LennetEH, BalowsA, HauslerWJ, TruantJP, ed. Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 3rd ed. Washington , DC : American Society for Microbiology; 1980: 724750.
  • 12
    Camargo M. Cross-reactivity in fluorescence tests for Trypano-soma and Leishmania antibodies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1969;18:500505.
  • 13
    Breitschwerdt EB, Papich MG, Hegarty BC, et al. Efficacy of doxycycline, azithromycin, or trovafloxacin for treatment of experimental Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in dogs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999;43:813821.
  • 14
    Lachaud L, Dereure J, Chabbert E, et al. Optimized PCR using patient blood samples for diagnosis and follow-up of visceral leishmaniasis, with special reference to AIDS patients. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:236240.
  • 15
    Jackson JE, Tally JD, Tang DB. An in vitro micromethod for drug sensitivity testing of Leishmania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989;41:318330.
  • 16
    Gramiccia M, Gradoni LMT. HIV-Leishmania co-infections in Italy. Isoenzyme characterization of Leishmania causing visceral leishmaniasis in HIV patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1992;86:161163.
  • 17
    Dye C, Vidor E, Dereure J. Serological diagnosis of leishmaniasis: On detecting infection as well as disease. Epidemiol Infect 1993; 103:647656.
  • 18
    Rooney J, Schantz P, Jackson J, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in the United States: A multi-state outbreak in dogs. 49th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Houston, TX, 2000.
  • 19
    Paranhos-Silva M, Freitas LAR, Santos WC, et al. A cross-sectional serodiagnostic survey of canine leishmaniasis due to Leishmania chagasi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1996;55:3944.
  • 20
    Longstaffe JA, Guy MW. Canine leishmaniasis—United Kingdom update. J Small Anim Pract 1986;27:663671.
  • 21
    Alexander J, Satoskar AR, Russell DG. Leishmania species: Models of intracellular parasitism. J Cell Sci 1999;112:29933002.
  • 22
    Alexander J, Carter KC, Al-Fasi N, et al. Endogenous IL-4 is necessary for effective drug therapy against visceral leishmaniasis. Eur J Immunol 2000;30:29352943.
  • 23
    Bacellar O, D'Oliveira A, Jeronimo S, et al. IL-10 and IL-12 are the main regulatory cytokines in visceral leishmaniasis. Cytokine 2000;12:12281231.
  • 24
    Guler ML, Gorham JD, Hsieh C-S, et al. Genetic susceptibility to Leishmania: IL-12 responsiveness to Thl cell development. Science 1996;276:984986.
  • 25
    Hondowicz BD, Park AY, Elloso MM, et al. Maintenance of IL-12-responsive CD4+ T cells during a Th2 response in Leishmania major infected mice. Eur J Immunol 2000;30:20072014.
  • 26
    Noben-Trauth N, Kropf P, Muller I. Susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in interleukin-4-deficient mice. Science 1996;271:987989.
  • 27
    Scharton-Kersten T, Afonso LC, Wysocka M, et al. IL-12 is required for natural killer cell activation and subsequent T helper 1 cell development in experimental leishmaniasis. J Immunol 1995;154:52205230.
  • 28
    Shankar AH, Titus RG. The influence of antigen-presenting cell type and interferon-gamma on priming and cytokine secretion of Leishmania mayor-specific T cells. J Infect Dis 1997;175:151157.
  • 29
    Ritter U, Moll H. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 stimulates the killing of Leishmania major by human monocytes, acts synergis-tically with IFN-γ and is antagonized by IL-4. Eur J Immunol 2000; 30:31113120.
  • 30
    Satoskar AR, Stamm LM, Zhang X, et al. Mice lacking NK cells develop an efficient Thl response and control cutaneous Leishmania major infection. J Immunol 1999;162:67476754.
  • 31
    Font A. Canine leishmaniasis. 17th Annual Veterinary Medical Forum, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Chicago, IL, 1999.
  • 32
    Slappendel RJ. Canine leishmaniasis. A review of 95 cases in the Netherlands. Vet Q 1988;10:116.
  • 33
    Ciaramella P, Oliva G, De Luna R, et al. A retrospective clinical study of canine leishmaniasis in 150 dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum. Vet Rec 1997;141:539543.
  • 34
    Slappendel RJ, Ferrer L. Leishmaniasis. In: GreeneCE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 2nd ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1998: 450457.
  • 35
    Solano-Gallego L, Lulull J, Ramos G, et al. The Ibizian hound presents a predominantly cellular immune response against Leishmania infection. Vet Parasitol 2000;90:3745.
  • 36
    Mancianti F, Sozzi S. Isolation of Leishmania from a newborn puppy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1995;89:402.
  • 37
    Slappendel RJ, Teske E. A review of canine leishmaniasis presenting outside endemic areas. Canine leishmaniasis: An update. Proceedings of the International Canine Leishmaniasis Forum, Barcelona, Spain, 1999.
  • 38
    Reithinger R, Davies CR. Is the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) a reservoir host of American cutaneous leishmaniasis? A critical review of the current evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1999;61:530541.
  • 39
    Fisa R, Gallego M, Castillejo S, et al. Epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in Catalonia (Spain). The example of the Priorat focus. Vet Parasitol 1999;83:8797.
  • 40
    McKenzie K. A Study of the Transmission of Canine Leishmaniasis by the Tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and an Ultrastructural Comparison of the Promastigote. Stillwater , OK : Oklahoma State University; 1984.
  • 41
    Grimaldi G, Tesh RB, McMahon-Pratt D. A review of the geographic distribution and epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the New World. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989;41:687725.
  • 42
    Killick-Kendrick R. Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: A review. Med Vet Entomol 1990;4:124.
  • 43
    Young DG, Perkins PV. Phlebotomine sand flies of North America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Mosquito News 1984;44:263303.
  • 44
    Lawyer PG, Young DG. Experimental transmission of Leish-mania mexicana to hamsters by bites of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the United States. J Med Entomol 1987;24:458462.
  • 45
    Dereure J, Pratlong F, Dedet J-P. Geographical distribution and identification of parasites causing canine leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean Basin. Canine leishmaniasis: An update. Proceedings of the International Canine Leishmaniasis Forum, Barcelona, Spain, 1999.
  • 46
    Ferrer LM. Clinical aspects of canine leishmaniasis. Canine leishmaniasis: An update. Proceedings of the International Canine Leishmaniasis Forum, Barcelona, Spain, 1999.
  • 47
    Bravo L, Frank LA, Brenneman KA. Canine leishmaniasis in the United States. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 1993;15:699708.
  • 48
    Ashford DA, Bozza M, Freire M, et al. Comparison of the poly-merase chain reaction and serology for the detection of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1995;53:251255.
  • 49
    Cabral M, O'Grady JE, Gomes S, et al. The immunology of canine leishmaniasis: Strong evidence for a developing disease spectrum from asymptomatic dogs. Vet Parasitol 1998;76:173180.
  • 50
    Gustafson TL, Reed CM, McGreevy PB. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired in Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1985;34:5863.
  • 51
    Barr SC, Dennis VA, Klei TR. Serologic and blood culture survey of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in four canine populations of southern Louisiana. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:570573.
  • 52
    Barr SC, Van Beek O, Carlisle-Nowak MS, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Walker hounds from Virginia. Am J Vet Res 1995; 56:10371044.
  • 53
    Fox JC, Ewing SA, Buckner RG, et al. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in a dog from Oklahoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986;182:15831584.
  • 54
    Williams GD, Adams GL, Yaeger RG, et al. Naturally occurring trypanosomiasis (Chagas' Disease) in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1977;171:171177.
  • 55
    Mathis A, Deplazes P. PCR and in vitro cultivation for detection of Leishmania spp. in diagnostic samples from humans and dogs. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:11451149.
  • 56
    Pappalardo BL, Correa MT, York CC, et al. Epidemiologic evaluation of the risk factors associated with exposure and seroreactivity to Bartonella vinsonii in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:467471.