• 1
    Fitton A, Brogden RN. Pimobendan. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential in congestive heart failure. Drugs Aging 1994;4:417441.
  • 2
    Mathew L, Katz SD. Calcium sensitising agents in heart failure. Drugs Aging 1998;12:191204.
  • 3
    Holubarsch C. New inotropic concepts: Rationale for and differences between calcium sensitizers and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Cardiology 1997; 88 (Suppl 2): 1220.
  • 4
    Solaro RJ, Fujino K, Sperelakis N. The positive inotropic effect of pimobendan involves stereospecific increases in the calcium sensitivity of cardiac myofilaments. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989; 14(Suppl 2):S7S12.
  • 5
    Fuchs F, Wang YP. Sarcomere length versus interfilament spacing as determinants of cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and Ca2+ binding. J Mol Cell Cardiol 1996;28:13751383.
  • 6
    Hasenfuss G, Holubarsch C, Just H, et al. Energetic aspects of inotropic interventions in rat myocardium. Basic Res Cardiol 1987; 82(Suppl 2):251259.
  • 7
    Holubarsch CH, Hasenfuss G, Just H, et al. Modulation of myothermal economy of isometric force generation by positive inotropic interventions in the guinea pig myocardium. Cardioscience 1990; 1:3341.
  • 8
    Holubarsch C, Hasenfuss G, Just H, et al. Influence of the positive inotropic substance pimobendan (UD-CG 115 BS) on contractile economy of guinea pig papillary muscles. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989;14(Suppl 2):S13S17.
  • 9
    Goto Y, Hata K. Mechanoenergetic effect of pimobendan in failing dog hearts. Heart Vessels 1997; 12(Suppl): 103105.
  • 10
    Fujino K, Sperelakis N, Solaro RJ. Sensitization of dog and guinea pig heart myofilaments to Ca2+ activation and the inotropic effect of pimobendan: Comparison with milrinone. Circ Res 1988;63:911922.
  • 11
    Hasenfuss G, Holubarsch C, Heiss HW, et al. Influence of the calcium-sensitizer UDCG-115 on hemodynamics and myocardial energetics in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Comparison with nitroprusside. Basic Res Cardiol 1989; 84(Suppl l):225233.
  • 12
    Remme WJ, Wiesfeld AC, Look MP, et al. Hemodynamic effects of intravenous pimobendan in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989;14(Suppl 2):S41S44.
  • 13
    Asanoi H, Ishizaka S, Kameyama T, et al. Disparate inotropic and lusitropic responses to pimobendan in conscious dogs with tachycardia-induced heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1994;23:268274.
  • 14
    Ohte N, Cheng CP, Suzuki M, et al. The cardiac effects of pimobendan (but not amrinone) are preserved at rest and during exercise in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;282:2331.
  • 15
    Ishiki R, Ishihara T, Izawa H, et al. Acute effects of a single low oral dose of pimobendan on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with congestive heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2000;35:897905.
  • 16
    Ichihara K, Abiko Y. The effect of pimobendan on myocardial mechanical function and metabolism in dogs: Comparison with do-butamine. J Pharm Pharmacol 1991;43:583588.
  • 17
    Hata K, Goto Y, Futaki S, et al. Mechanoenergetic effects of pimobendan in canine left ventricles. Comparison with dobutamine. Circulation 1992;86:12911301.
  • 18
    Meel JC, Diederen W. Hemodynamic profile of the cardiotonic agent pimobendan. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989;14(Suppl 2):S1S6.
  • 19
    Pouleur H, Hanet C, Schroder E, et al. Effects of pimobendan (UD-CG 115 BS) on left ventricular inotropic state in conscious dogs and in patients with heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989; 14(Suppl 2):S18S22.
  • 20
    Bohm M, Flesch M, Schnabel P. Role of G-proteins in altered beta-adrenergic responsiveness in the failing and hypertrophied myocardium. Basic Res Cardiol 1996;91(Suppl 2):4751.
  • 21
    Akhter SA, Eckhart AD, Rockman HA, et al. In vivo inhibition of elevated myocardial beta-adrenergic receptor kinase activity in hybrid transgenic mice restores normal beta-adrenergic signaling and function. Circulation 1999;100:648653.
  • 22
    Sato N, Asai K, Okumura S, et al. Mechanisms of desensiti-zation to a PDE inhibitor (milrinone) in conscious dogs with heart failure. Am J Physiol 1999;276:H1699H1705.
  • 23
    Ravens U, Himmel HM, Fluss M, et al. Phosphodiesterase inhibition and Ca2+ sensitization. Mol Cell Biochem 1996; 157:245249.
  • 24
    Verdouw PD, Hartog JM, Duncker DJ, et al. Cardiovascular profile of pimobendan, a benzimidazole-pyridazinone derivative with vasodilating and inotropic properties. Eur J Pharmacol 1986;126:2130.
  • 25
    Fujimoto S, Matsuda T. Effects of pimobendan, a cardiotonic and vasodilating agent with phosphodiesterase inhibiting properties, on isolated arteries and veins of rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990;252:13041311.
  • 26
    Erlemeier HH, Kupper W, Bleifeld W. Comparison of hormonal and haemodynamic changes after long-term oral therapy with pimobendan or enalapril—A double-blind randomized study. Eur Heart J 1991;12:889899.
  • 27
    Katz SD, Kubo SH, Jessup M, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pimobendan, a new cardiotonic and vasodilator agent, in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 1992;123:95103.
  • 28
    Renard M, Walter M, Liebens I, et al. Pimobendane (UD-CG 115 BS) in chronic congestive heart failure. Short-term and one-month effects of a new inotropic vasodilating agent. Chest 1988;93:11591164.
  • 29
    Hagemeijer F, Brand HJ, Mechelen R. Hemodynamic effects of pimobendan given orally in congestive heart failure secondary to is-chemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:571576.
  • 30
    Hagemeijer F, Roth W, Brand HJ. Correlations between the cardiovascular effects of pimobendan and plasma concentrations of the parent compound and of its major active metabolite, UD-CG 212 CL, in patients with congestive heart failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989; 14(Suppl 2):S57S64.
  • 31
    Walter M, Liebens I, Goethals H, et al. Pimobendane (UD-CG 115 BS) in the treatment of severe congestive heart failure. An acute haemodynamic cross-over and double-blind study with two different doses. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1988;25:323329.
  • 32
    Kubo SH, Gollub S, Bourge R, et al. Beneficial effects of pimobendan on exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Results of a multicenter trial. The Pimobendan Multi-center Research Group. Circulation 1992;85:942949.
  • 33
    Sasayama S, Asanoi H, Kihara Y, et al. Clinical effects of long-term administration of pimobendan in patients with moderate congestive heart failure. Heart Vessels 1994;9:113120.
  • 34
    Remme WJ, Krayenbuhl HP, Baumann G, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of pimobendan in moderate heart failure. A double-blind parallel 6-month comparison with enalapril. The Pimobendan-Enalapril Study Group. Eur Heart J 1994;15:947956.
  • 35
    Lubsen J, Just H, Hjalmarsson AC, et al. Effect of pimobendan on exercise capacity in patients with heart failure: Main results from the Pimobendan in Congestive Heart Failure (PICO) trial. Heart 1996; 76:223231.
  • 36
    Massie B, Bourassa M, DiBianco R, et al. Long-term oral administration of amrinone for congestive heart failure: Lack of efficacy in a multicenter controlled trial. Circulation 1985;71:963971.
  • 37
    Uretsky BF, Jessup M, Konstam MA, et al. Multicenter trial of oral enoximone in patients with moderate to moderately severe congestive heart failure. Lack of benefit compared with placebo. Enoxi-mone Multicenter Trial Group. Circulation 1990;82:774780.
  • 38
    Kato K. Clinical efficacy and safety of pimobendan in treatment of heart failure—Experience in Japan. Cardiology 1997; 88 (Suppl 2): 2836.
  • 39
    Hauf GF, Grom E, Jahnchen E, et al. Acute and long-term he-modynamic effects of pimobendan (UD-CG 115 BS) in comparison with captopril. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989;14(Suppl 2):S49S56.
  • 40
    Yoshikawa T, Baba A, Suzuki M, et al. Effectiveness of car-vedilol alone versus carvedilol + pimobendan for severe congestive heart failure. For the Keio Interhospital Cardiology Study (KICS) Group. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:14951497.
  • 41
    Sisson D, Thomas WE Myocardial diseases. In: EttingerSJ, FeldmanEC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1995: 9951033.
  • 42
    Calvert CA, Chapman WC, Toal RC. Congestive cardiomyop-athy in Doberman Pinscher dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982;181:598602.
  • 43
    Calvert CA, Pickus CW, Jacobs GJ, et al. Signalment, survival, and prognostic factors in Doberman Pinschers with end-stage cardio-myopathy. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:323326.
  • 44
    Thomas RE. Congestive cardiac failure in young Cocker Spaniels (a form of cardiomyopathy?): Details of eight cases. J Small Anim Pract 1987;28:265279.
  • 45
    Staaden RV. Cardiomyopathy of English Cocker Spaniels. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1981;178:12891292.
  • 46
    Kittleson MD, Eyster GE, Knowlen GG, et al. Myocardial function in small dogs with chronic mitral regurgitation and severe congestive heart failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984;184:455459.
  • 47
    Borow KM, Green LH, Mann T, et al. End-systolic volume as a predictor of postoperative left ventricular performance in volume overload from valvular regurgitation. Am J Med 1980;68:655663.
  • 48
    Tidholm A, Svensson H, Sylven C. Survival and prognostic factors in 189 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1997;33:364368.
  • 49
    Calvert CA. Effect of medical therapy on survival of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1991;21:919930.
  • 50
    Packer M, Carver JR, Rodeheffer RJ, et al. Effect of oral mil-rinone on mortality in severe chronic heart failure. For the PROMISE Study Research Group. N Engl J Med 1991;325:14681475.
  • 51
    Cowley AJ, Skene AM. Treatment of severe heart failure: Quantity or quality of life? A trial of enoximone. Br Heart J 1994;72:226230.
  • 52
    Cohn JN, Goldstein SO, Greenberg BH, et al. A dose-dependent increase in mortality with vesnarinone among patients with severe heart failure. Vesnarinone Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998;339:18101816.
  • 53
    Ewy GA. Inotropic infusions for chronic congestive heart failure: Medical miracles or misguided medicinals J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:572575.
  • 54
    Packer M. The development of positive inotropic agents for chronic heart failure: How have we gone astray J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:119A126A.
  • 55
    Asanoi H, Inoue H. Positive inotropic agents: A double-edged sword for chronic heart failure. Intern Med 1996;35:6364.
  • 56
    Sasayama S. Inotropic agents in the treatment of heart failure: Despair or hope Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1997;10:703709.
  • 57
    Silver MA. Intermittent inotropes for advanced heart failure: Inquiring minds want to know. Am Heart J 1999;138:191192.
  • 58
    Takaoka H, Takeuchi M, Odake M, et al. Comparison of the effects on arterial-ventricular coupling between phosphodiesterase inhibitor and dobutamine in the diseased human heart. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22:598606.
  • 59
    van Meel JC, Mauz AB, Wienen W, et al. Pimobendan increases survival of cardiomyopathic hamsters. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989; 13:508509.
  • 60
    Sasaki T, Kubo T, Komamura K, Nishikimi T. Effects of long-term treatment with pimobendan on neurohumoral factors in patients with non-ischemic chronic moderate heart failure. J Cardiol 1999;33:317325.
  • 61
    Keister DM, Kittleson MD, Bonagura JD, et al. Milrinone: A clinical trial in 29 dogs with moderate to severe congestive heart failure. J Vet Intern Med 1990;4:7986.
    Direct Link:
  • 62
    Kittleson MD, Johnson LE, Pion PD. The acute hemodynamic effects of milrinone in dogs with severe idiopathic myocardial failure. J Vet Intern Med 1987;1:121127.
  • 63
    Kittleson MD. The efficacy and safety of milrinone for treating heart failure in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1991;21:905918.
  • 64
    Kittleson MD, Pipers FS, Knauer KW, et al. Echocardiographic and clinical effects of milrinone in dogs with myocardial failure. Am J Vet Res 1985;46:16591664.
  • 65
    Iwasaki A, Matsumori A, Yamada T, et al. Pimobendan inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a murine model of viral myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:14001407.
  • 66
    Calvert CA, Jacobs G, Pickus CW. Bradycardia-associated episodic weakness, syncope, and aborted sudden death in cardiomyopathic Doberman Pinschers. J Vet Intern Med 1996; 10:8893.
  • 67
    Calvert CA, Hall G, Jacobs G, Pickus C. Clinical and pathologic findings in Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly or developed congestive heart failure: 54 cases (1984–1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:505511.
  • 68
    Kittleson MD, Keene B, Pion PD, et al. Results of the multi-center spaniel trial (MUST): Taurine- and carnitine-responsive dilated cardiomyopathy in American Cocker Spaniels with decreased plasma taurine concentration. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:204211.