Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by an inability of the kidney to concentrate urine despite adequate concentration of vasopressin in blood and is characterized by polyuria, polydipsia, and hyposthenuria in the presence of plasma hyperosmolality. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is the result of defects in water homeostasis in the kidney. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidneys cannot or do not respond to vasopressin. There are 2 categories of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a rare, inherited, irreversible cause of polyuria and polydipsia in humans that is even rarer in animals. Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is more common and is often secondary to illness or medication that interferes with the action of vasopressin in the renal tubules. Unlike congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, acquired or secondary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is often reversible with correction of the associated or causative problem.