• Open Access

Spontaneous Feline Hypertension: Clinical and Echocardiographic Abnormalities, and Survival Rate

Authors


Unite de Cardiologie d'Alfort, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire d'Alfort, 7Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94 704Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France; e-mail: chetboul@vet-alfort.fr.

Abstract

Systemic hypertension was diagnosed in 58 of 188 untreated cats referred for evaluation of suspected hypertension-associated ocular, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and urinary disease, or diseases frequently associated with hypertension (hyperthyroidism and chronic renal failure). Hypertensive cats were significantly older than normotensive subjects (13.0 ± 3.5 years versus 9.6 ± 5.0 years; P < .01), and had a greater prevalence of retinal lesions (48 versus 3%; P < .001), gallop rhythm (16 versus 0%; P < .001), and polyuria-polydipsia (53 versus 29%; P < .01). Blood pressure was significantly higher (P < .001) in cats with retinopathies (262 ± 34 mm Hg) than in other hypertensive animals (221 ± 34 mm Hg). Hypertensive cats had a thicker interventricular septum (5.8 ± 1.7 versus 3.7 ± 0.64 mm; P < .001) and left ventricular free wall (6.2 ± 1.6 versus 4.1 ± 0.51 mm; P < .001) and a reduced diastolic left ventricular internal diameter (13.5 ± 3.2 versus 15.8 ± 0.72 mm; P < .001) than control cats. Left ventricular geometry was abnormal in 33 of 39 hypertensive subjects. No significant difference was found in age or blood pressure at the initial visit between cats that died or survived over a 9-month period after initial diagnosis of hypertension. Mean survival times were not significantly different between hypertensive cats with normal and abnormal left ventricular patterns. Further prospective studies are needed to clearly identify the factors involved in survival time in hypertensive cats.

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