Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder, the most common malignancy of the urinary tract in dogs, is challenging to both diagnose and treat effectively. The prevalence of this disease may be increasing. The etiology of canine TCC is likely multifactorial. Epidemiological studies of TCC in the dog have revealed a number of risk factors, including breed and female gender, as well as environmental factors, such as insecticide exposure. This tumor is difficult to remove surgically and responds poorly to chemotherapy. The efficacy of radiotherapy and other treatment modalities needs further investigation. Cyclooxygenase-inhibiting drugs have some activity against TCC, and studies to further define these effects are ongoing. Use of the tumor/node/ metastasis (TNM) classification scheme for bladder cancer has allowed for the identification of prognostic factors. Urinary tract obstruction and metastatic disease remain challenges to treat. Work with canine TCC has demonstrated how closely this disease resembles human invasive urinary bladder cancer. Therefore, future research has the potential to benefit both dogs and humans with TCC.