• 1
    Evans DL. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise and training. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1985;1:513531.
  • 2
    Clark ES, Gantley B, Moore JN. Effects of slow infusion of a low dosage of endotoxin on systemic haemodynamics in conscious horses. Equine Vet J 1991;23:1821.
  • 3
    Hedenstierna G, Nyman G, Kvart C, Funkquist B. Ventilation-perfusion relationships in the standing horse: An inert gas elimination study. Equine Vet J 1987;19:514519.
  • 4
    Hinchcliff KW, McKeever KH, Muir WW. Hemodynamic effects of atropine, dobutamine, nitroprusside, phenylephrine, and propranolol in conscious horses. J Vet Intern Med 1991;5:8086.
  • 5
    Muir WW, Skarda RT, Milne DW. Estimation of cardiac output in the horse by thermodilution techniques. Am J Vet Res 1976;37:697700.
  • 6
    Muir WW. Cardiovascular effects of dopexamine HCl in conscious and halothane-anaesthetised horses. Equine Vet J 1992; 11(Suppl):2429.
  • 7
    Skarda RT, Muir WW. Analgesic, hemodynamic, and respiratory effects of caudal epidurally administered xylazine hydrochloride solution in mares. Am J Vet Res 1996;57:193200.
  • 8
    Hodgson DS, Dunlop CI, Chapman PL, Grandy JL. Cardiopul-monary effects of anesthesia induced and maintained with isoflurane in cats. Am J Vet Res 1998;59:182185.
  • 9
    Bonagura JD, Reef VB. Cardiovascular diseases. In: ReedSM, BaylyWM, ed. Equine Internal Medicine, 1st ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1998: 290370.
  • 10
    Daily EK, Schroeder JS. Cardiac output measurements. In: DailyEK, SchroederJS, ed. Techniques in Bedside Hemodynamic Monitoring, 5th ed. St Louis , MO : Mosby; 1994: 173194.
  • 11
    Martinez EA, Hartsfield SM, Melendez LD, et al. Cardiovascular effects of buprenorphine in anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:12801284.
  • 12
    Fick A. Ueber die Messung des Blutquantums in den Herzven-trikeln. Sitzber Physik Med Ges Würzburg 1870;2:16.
  • 13
    Acierno LJ. Adolph Fick: Mathematician, physicist, physiologist. Clin Cardiol 2000;23:390391.
  • 14
    Zuntz N, Hagemann O. Untersuchungen über den Stoffwechsel des Pferdes bei Ruhe und Arbeit. Landwirtsch Jahrb 1894;27:284301.
  • 15
    Daily EK, Schroeder JS. Pulmonary artery and pulmonary artery wedge pressure monitoring. In: DailyEK, SchroederJS, ed. Techniques in Bedside Hemodynamic Monitoring, 5th ed. St Louis , MO : Mosby; 1994: 99141.
  • 16
    Wetmore LA, Derksen FJ, Blaze CA, Eyster GE. Mixed venous oxygen tension as an estimate of cardiac output in anesthetized horses. Am J Vet Res 1987;48:971976.
  • 17
    Edwards JD, Mayall RM. Importance of the sampling site for measurement of mixed venous oxygen saturation in shock. Crit Care Med 1998;26:13561360.
  • 18
    Tucker VA. Method for oxygen content and dissociation curves on microliter blood samples. J Appl Physiol 1967;23:410414.
  • 19
    Van Slyke DD, Neill JM. The determination of gases in blood and other solutions by vacuum extraction and manometric determination. J Biol Chem 1924;61:523573.
  • 20
    LiDCO. The LiDCO System Users Manual, version 3.4.2. London : LiDCO Ltd; 2001.
  • 21
    Smale K, Anderson LS, Butler PJ. An algorithm to describe the oxygen equilibrium curve for the thoroughbred racehorse. Equine Vet J 1994;26:500502.
  • 22
    DePocas F, Hart JS. Use of the Pauling oxygen analyzer for measurement of oxygen consumption of animals in open-circuit systems and in short lag, closed-circuit apparatus. J Appl Physiol 1957; 10:388392.
  • 23
    Fedak MA, Rome L, Seeherman HJ. One-step N2-dilution technique for calibrating open-circuit VO2 measuring systems. J Appl Phy-siol 1981;51:772776.
  • 24
    Eaton MD. Energetics and performance. In: HodgsonDR, RoseRJ, ed. The Athletic Horse. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1994: 4961.
  • 25
    Hargreaves M, Jennings G. Evaluation of the CO2 rebreathing method for the non-invasive measurement of resting cardiac output in man. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1983;10:609614.
  • 26
    Capek JM, Roy RJ. Noninvasive measurement of cardiac output using partial CO2 rebreathing. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 1988;35:653661.
  • 27
    Haryadi DG, Orr JA, Kuck K, et al. Evaluation of a partial CO2 rebreathing Fick technique for measurement of cardiac output. Anes-thesiology 1998;89:A534.
  • 28
    Henriques V. Uber die Verteilung des Blutes vom Herzen zwischen dem Herzen und dem übrigen Organismus. Biochem Z 1913; 56:230248.
  • 29
    Kinsman JM, Moore JW, Hamilton WF. Studies on the circulation. 1. Injection method: Physical and mathematical considerations. Am J Physiol 1932; 89: 332.
  • 30
    Stewart GN. Researches on circulation time and on the influences which affect it. IV. The output of the heart. J Physiol (Lond) 1897; 22: 159183.
  • 31
    Morady F, Brundage BH, Gelberg HJ. Rapid method for determination of shunt ratio using a thermodilution technique. Am Heart J 1983;106:369373.
  • 32
    Victorica BE, Gessner IH. A simplified method for quantitating left-to-right shunts from arterial dilution curves. Circulation 1975;51:530534.
  • 33
    Cutler CA, Billings RG, Clark JS, Veasy LG. A thermodilution method for quantification of bidirectional shunts. Comput Biomed Res 1979;12:379410.
  • 34
    Lund-Johansen P. The dye dilution method for measurement of cardiac output. Eur Heart J 1990;11(Suppl I):612.
  • 35
    Benya R, Quintana J, Brundage B. Adverse reactions to indo-cyanine green: A case report and a review of the literature. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1989;17:231233.
  • 36
    Bergsten G. Blood pressure, cardiac output, and blood-gas tension in the horse at rest and during exercise. Acta Vet Scand 1974; 48(Suppl):188.
  • 37
    Mizuno Y, Aida H, Hara H, et al. Comparison of methods of cardiac output measurements determined by dye dilution, pulsed Doppler echocardiography and thermodilution in horses. J Vet Med Sci 1994;56:15.
  • 38
    Fuse M, Aoyagi T, Xie CT, et al. Dye dilution curve measurement with principle of the pulse oximeter. Jpn J Med Electron Biol Eng 1992;30:249.
  • 39
    Bremer F, Schiele A, Tschaikowsky K. Cardiac output measurement by pulse dye densitometry: A comparison with Fick's principle and thermodilution method. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:399405.
  • 40
    Imai T, Takahashi K, Fukura H, Morishita Y. Measurement of. cardiac output by pulse dye densitometry using indocyanine green: A comparison with the thermodilution method. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 816822.
  • 41
    Imai T, Takahashi K, Goto F, Morishita Y. Measurement of blood concentration of indocyanine green by pulse dye densitometry– Comparison with the conventional spectrophotometric method. J Clin Monit 1998;14:477484.
  • 42
    Chaffin MK, Matthews NS, Cohen ND, Carter GK. Evaluation of pulse oximetry in anaesthetised foals using multiple combinations of transducer type and transducer attachment site. Equine Vet J 1996; 28:437445.
  • 43
    Matthews NS, Hartsfield SM, Sanders EA, et al. Evaluation of pulse oximetry in horses surgically treated for colic. Equine Vet J 1994;26:114116.
  • 44
    Whitehair KJ, Watney GC, Leith DE, Debowes RM. Pulse ox-imetry in horses. Vet Surg 1990;19:243248.
  • 45
    Fegler G. Measurement of cardiac output in anaesthetised animals by a thermodilution method. Q J Exp Physiol 1954;39:153164.
  • 46
    Branthwaite MA, Bradley RD. Measurement of cardiac output by thermal dilution in man. J Appl Physiol 1968;24:434438.
  • 47
    Ganz W, Donoso R, Marcus HS, et al. A new technique for measurement of cardiac output by thermodilution in man. Am J Car-diol 1971;27:392396.
  • 48
    Muir WW. The haemodynamic effects of milrinone HCl in hal-othane anaesthetised horses. Equine Vet J 1995;19(Suppl):108113.
  • 49
    Corley KTT, Donaldson LL, Furr MO. Comparison of lithium dilution and thermodilution cardiac output measurements in anaesthetised neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 2002;34:598601.
  • 50
    Thomas WP, Madigan JE, Backus KQ, Powell WE. Systemic and pulmonary haemodynamics in normal neonatal foals. J Reprod Fertil 1987;35(Suppl):623628.
  • 51
    Schlipf JW, Dunlop CI, Getzy DM, et al. Lesions associated with cardiac catheterization and thermodilution cardiac output determination in horses. 5th International Congress of Veterinary Anesthesia, Guelph, ON, Canada, 1994.
  • 52
    Elliott CG, Zimmerman GA, Clemmer TP. Complications of pulmonary artery catheterization in the care of critically ill patients. A prospective study. Chest 1979; 76: 647652.
  • 53
    Connors AF, Speroff T, Dawson NV, et al. The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients. J Am Med Assoc 1996;276:889897.
  • 54
    Murdoch SD, Cohen AT, Bellamy MC. Pulmonary artery cath-eterization and mortality in critically ill patients. Br J Anaesth 2000; 85:611615.
  • 55
    Polanczyk CA, Rohde LE, Goldman L, et al. Right heart cath-eterization and cardiac complications in patients undergoing noncar-diac surgery. J Am Med Assoc 2001;286:309314.
  • 56
    Yelderman ML, Ramsay MA, Quinn MD, et al. Continuous thermodilution cardiac output measurement in intensive care unit patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1992;6:270274.
  • 57
    Zollner C, Polasek J, Kilger E, et al. Evaluation of a new continuous thermodilution cardiac output monitor in cardiac surgical patients: A prospective criterion standard study. Crit Care Med 1999;27:293298.
  • 58
    McLuckie A, Murdoch IA, Marsh MJ, Anderson D. A comparison of pulmonary and femoral artery thermodilution cardiac indices in paediatric intensive care patients. Acta Paediatr 1996;85:336338.
  • 59
    Sakka SG, Reinhart K, Meier Hellmann A. Comparison of pulmonary artery and arterial thermodilution cardiac output in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 1999;25:843846.
  • 60
    Linton RA, Band DM, Haire KM. A new method of measuring cardiac output in man using lithium dilution. Br J Anaesth 1993;71:262266.
  • 61
    Linton R, Band D, O'Brien T, et al. Lithium dilution cardiac output measurement: A comparison with thermodilution. Crit Care Med 1997;25:17961800.
  • 62
    Linton RA, Young LE, Marlin DJ, et al. Cardiac output measured by lithium dilution, thermodilution and transesophageal Doppler echocardiography in anesthetized horses. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:731737.
  • 63
    Corley KTT. Monitoring and treating haemodynamic disturbances in critically ill neonatal foals. Part I–Haemodynamic monitoring. Equine Vet Educ 2002; 14: 270279.
  • 64
    Corley KTT. Monitoring and treating haemodynamic disturbances in critically ill neonatal foals. Part II–Assessment and treatment. Equine Vet Educ 2002; 14: 328336.
  • 65
    Hatfield CL, McDonnell WN, Lemke KA, Black WD. Phar-macokinetics and toxic effects of lithium chloride after intravenous administration in conscious horses. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:13871392.
  • 66
    Kurita T, Morita K, Kato S, et al. Lithium dilution cardiac output measurements using a peripheral injection site: Comparison with central lithium technique and thermodilution. J Clin Monit 1999;15:279285.
  • 67
    Mason DJ, O'Grady M, Woods JP, McDonell W. Assessment of lithium dilution cardiac output as a technique for measurement of cardiac output in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:12551261.
  • 68
    Linton RA, Jonas MM, Tibby SM, et al. Cardiac output measured by lithium dilution and transpulmonary thermodilution in patients in a paediatric intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 2000;26:15071511.
  • 69
    Young LE, Blissit KJ, Bartram DH, et al. Measurement of cardiac output by transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography in anaesthetized horses: Comparison with thermodilution. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77:773780.
  • 70
    Blissitt KJ, Young LE, Jones RS, et al. Measurement of cardiac output in standing horses by Doppler echocardiography and thermo-dilution. Equine Vet J 1997;29:1825.
  • 71
    Light LH, Cross G. Possibility of Doppler measurement of cardiac output. Biomed Eng 1972;7:195.
  • 72
    White SW, McRitchie RJ, Porges WL. A comparison between thermodilution, electromagnetic and Doppler methods for cardiac output measurement in the rabbit. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1974;1:175182.
  • 73
    Long KJ, Young LE, Jones RS, et al. Determination of cardiac output in the standing horse by thermodilution and Doppler echocar-diography. Br J Anaesth 1992;68:447.
  • 74
    Reef VB, Lalezari K, de Boo J, et al. Pulsed-wave Doppler evaluation of intracardiac blood flow in 30 clinically normal Stan-dardbred horses. Am J Vet Res 1989;50:7583.
  • 75
    Singer M, Clarke J, Bennett ED. Continuous hemodynamic monitoring by esophageal Doppler. Crit Care Med 1989;17:447452.
  • 76
    Blissitt KJ, Bonagura JD. Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiog-raphy in normal horses. Equine Vet J 1995;19(Suppl):3846.
  • 77
    Young LE, Blissit KJ, Clutton RE, et al. Feasibility of transoe-sophageal echocardiography for evaluation of left ventricular performance in anaesthetised horses. Equine Vet J 1995;19(Suppl):6370.
  • 78
    Lefrant JY, Bruelle P, Aya AG, et al. Training is required to improve the reliability of esophageal Doppler to measure cardiac output in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med 1998;24:347352.
  • 79
    Kubicek WG, Kottke J, Ramos MU, et al. The Minnesota impedance cardiograph–Theory and applications. Biomed Eng 1974;9:410416.
  • 80
    Forro M, Cieslar S, Ecker GL, et al. Total body water and ECFV measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis and indicator dilution in horses. J Appl Physiol 2000; 89: 663671.
  • 81
    Schott HC, Butudom P, Axiak SM, Eberhart SW. Assessment of changes in body fluid volumes during dehydration and rehydration using bioelectrical impedance measures. Proc Am Coll Vet Intern Med 2001: A209.
  • 82
    Shoemaker WC, Belzberg H, Wo CC, et al. Multicenter study of noninvasive monitoring systems as alternatives to invasive monitoring of acutely ill emergency patients. Chest 1998;114:16431652.
  • 83
    Marik PE, Pendelton JE, Smith R. A comparison of hemody-namic parameters derived from transthoracic electrical bioimpedance with those parameters obtained by thermodilution and ventricular an-giography. Crit Care Med 1997;25:15451550.
  • 84
    Critchley LAH, Calcroft RM, Tan PYH, et al. The effect of lung injury and excessive lung fluid, on impedance cardiac measurements, in the critically ill. Intensive Care Med 2000;26:679685.
  • 85
    Graves CL, Stauffer WM, Klein RL, Underwood PS. Aortic pulse contour calculation of cardiac output. Anesthesiology 1968;29:580584.
  • 86
    Wesseling KH, de Wit B, Beneken JE. Arterial haemodynamic parameters derived from noninvasively recorded pulsewaves, using parameter estimation. Med Biol Eng 1973;11:724731.
  • 87
    Gödje O, Hoke K, Goetz AE, et al. Reliability of a new algorithm for continuous cardiac output determination by pulse-contour analysis during hemodynamic instability. Crit Care Med 2002;30:5258.
  • 88
    Winer N, Sowers JR, Weber MA. Gender differences in vascular compliance in young, healthy subjects assessed by pulse contour analysis. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2001;3:145152.
  • 89
    McVeigh GE, Bratteli CW, Morgan DJ, et al. Age-related abnormalities in arterial compliance identified by pressure pulse contour analysis: Aging and arterial compliance. Hypertension 1999;33:13921398.
  • 90
    Gödje O, Höke K, Lamm P, et al. Continuous, less invasive, hemodynamic monitoring in intensive care after cardiac surgery. Thor-ac Cardiovasc Surg 1998;46:242249.
  • 91
    Goedje O, Hoeke K, Lichtwarck-Aschoff M, et al. Continuous cardiac output by femoral arterial thermodilution calibrated pulse contour analysis: Comparison with pulmonary arterial thermodilution. Crit Care Med 1999;27:24072412.
  • 92
    Rodig G, Prasser C, Keyl C, et al. Continuous cardiac output measurement: Pulse contour analysis vs thermodilution technique in cardiac surgical patients. Br J Anaesth 1999;82:525530.
  • 93
    Linton NW, Linton RA. Estimation of changes in cardiac output from the arterial blood pressure waveform in the upper limb. Br J Anaesth 2001;86:486496.
  • 94
    Pittman JA, Sum-Ping JS, Sherwood MW, et al. Continuous cardiac output monitoring by arterial pressure waveform analysis: A 24 hour comparison with the lithium dilution technique. 24th Annual Meeting of the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, New York, NY, 2002; Available at: http:www.lidco.comdocumentsPosterSCADukeStudy(15).pdf.
  • 95
    Gödje O, Friedl R, Hannekum A. Accuracy of beat-to-beat cardiac output monitoring by pulse contour analysis in hemodynamical unstable patients. Med Sci Monit 2001;7:13441350.
  • 96
    Antonutto G, Girardis M, Tuniz D, di Prampero PE. Noninva-sive assessment of cardiac output from arterial pressure profiles during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1995;72:1824.