• 1
    Peterson ME, Melián C., Nichols R. Measurement of serum total thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyrotropin concentrations for diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:13961402.
  • 2
    Dixon RM, Mooney CT. Evaluation of serum free thyroxine and thyrotropin concentrations in the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism. J Small Anim Pract 1999;40:7278.
  • 3
    Scott-Moncrieff JC, Nelson RW, Bruner JM, et al. Comparison of serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone in healthy dogs, hypothyroid dogs, and euthyroid dogs with concurrent disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:387391.
  • 4
    Surks MI, Stievert R. Drugs and thyroid function. New Engl J Med 1995;333:16881694.
  • 5
    Davies PH, Franklyn JA. The effects of drugs on tests of thyroid function. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991;40:439451.
  • 6
    Ferguson DC. The dog as a model of thyroid physiology. Proceedings of the 16th Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, San Diego, CA, 1998.
  • 7
    Kaptein EM, Hays MT, Ferguson DC. Thyroid hormone metabolism: A comparative evaluation. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:431463.
  • 8
    Capen CC. Mechanism of chemical injury of thyroid gland. Prog Clin Biol Res 1994;387:173191.
  • 9
    Ferguson DC. Thyroid hormones and antithyroid drugs. In: AdamsHR, ed. Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Ames , IA : Iowa State Press; 2001: 626648.
  • 10
    Taurog A. Hormone synthesis. In: BravermanLE, UtigerRD, eds. Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid. Philadelphia , PA : Lippincott-Raven; 1996: 4781.
  • 11
    Castillo VA, Lalia JC, Junco M., et al. Changes in thyroid function in puppies fed a high iodine commercial diet. Vet J 2001;161:8084.
  • 12
    Wolff J. Excess iodide inhibits the thyroid gland by multiple mechanisms. In: EckholmR., KohnLD, WollmanSH, eds. Control of the Thyroid Gland. New York , NY : Plenum; 1989: 211244.
  • 13
    Kaptein EM, Hoopes MT, Ferguson DC, et al. Comparison of reverse triiodothyronine distribution and metabolism in normal dogs and humans. Endocrinology 1990;126:20032014.
  • 14
    Kaptein EM, Moore GE, Ferguson DC, et al. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine distribution and metabolism in thyroxine-replaced athyreotic dogs and normal humans. Am J Phys (Endocrinol Metab) 1993; 264: E90E100.
  • 15
    Broome MR, Hays MT, Turrel JM. Peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones and iodide in healthy and hyperthyroid cats. Am J Vet Res 1987;48:12861289.
  • 16
    Yang X., McGraw RA, Su XS, et al. Canine thyrotropin-subunit gene: Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli, generation of monoclonal antibodies, and transient expression in the Chinese Hamster ovary cells. Domest Anim Endocrinol 2000;18:363378.
  • 17
    Larsen PR, Silva JE, Kaplan MM. Relationships between circulating and intracellular thyroid hormones: Physiological and clinical implications. Endocr Rev 1981;2:87102.
  • 18
    Reichlin S. Neuroendocrine control of thyrotropin secretion. In: IngbarSH, BravermanLE, eds. The Thyroid. Philadelphia , PA : Lip-pincott; 1986: 241266.
  • 19
    Magner JA. Thyroid-stimulating hormone: Biosynthesis, cell biology, and bioactivity. Endocr Rev 1990;11:354385.
  • 20
    Fish LH, Schwartz HL, Cavanagh J., et al. Replacement dose, metabolism, and bioavailability of levothyroxine in the treatment of hypothyroidism: Role of triiodothyronine in pituitary feedback in humans. N Engl J Med 1997;316:764770.
  • 21
    Belshaw BE, Barandes M., Becker DV, et al. A model of iodine kinetics in the dog. Endocrinology 1974;95:10781093.
  • 22
    Inada M., Kasagi K., Kurata S., et al. Estimation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine distribution and of the conversion rate of thyrox-ine to triiodothyronine in man. J Clin Invest 1975;55:13371348.
  • 23
    Laurberg P. Iodothyronine release from the perfused canine thyroid. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1980;236:150.
  • 24
    Ferguson DC. Thyroid function tests in the dog. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1984;14:783808.
  • 25
    Bigler B. Thyroxine-binding serum proteins in the cat as compared to dog and man. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 1976;118:559562.
  • 26
    Larsson M., Pettersson T., Carlstrom A. Thyroid hormone binding in serum of 15 vertebrate species: Isolation of thyroxine-binding globulin and prealbumin analogs. Gen Comp Endocrinol 1985;58:360375.
  • 27
    Larsson M. Diagnostic Methods in Canine Hypothyroidism and Influence of Non-THYROIDAL Illness on Thyroid Hormones and Thyroxine-Binding Proteins. Uppsala , Sweden : Uppsala University; 1987.
  • 28
    Mendel CM. The free hormone hypothesis: A physiologically based mathematical model. Endocr Rev 1989;10:232274.
  • 29
    Robbins JR, Rall JE. Proteins associated with the thyroid hormones. Physiol Rev 1960;40:415489.
  • 30
    Ferguson DC, Peterson ME. Serum free and total iodothyronine concentrations in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. Am J Vet Res 1992; 53:16361640.
  • 31
    Pardridge WM. Transport of protein-bound hormones into tissues in vivo. Endocr Rev 1981;2:103123.
  • 32
    Burrow GN, Oppenheimer JH, Volpe R. Thyroid function and disease. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1989.
  • 33
    Fox LE, Nachreiner RF. The pharmacokinetics of T3 and T4 in the dog. Proc 62nd Conf Res Workers in Anim Dis 1981; 13.
  • 34
    Nachreiner RF, Refsal KR, Ravis WR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of L-thyroxine after its oral administration in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54:20912098.
  • 35
    Scott-Moncrieff CR, Guptill-Yoran L. Hypothyroidism. In: EttingerSJ, FeldmanEC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 2000: 14191429.
  • 36
    Gosselin SJ, Capen CC, Martin SL. Histologic and ultrastruc-tural evaluation of thyroid lesions associated with hypothyroidism in dogs. Vet Pathol 1981;18:299309.
  • 37
    Rijnberk A. Thyroids. In: Clinical Endocrinology of Dogs and Cats. Dordrecht , The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1996: 3559.
  • 38
    Campbell KL, Chambers MD, Davis CA, et al. Effects of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole on thyroid physiology in dogs. Proceedings of the 11th Annual American Association of Veterinary Dermatology/American College of Veterinary Dermatology Meeting, Santa Fe, NM, 1995.
  • 39
    Scott-Moncrieff JCR, Nelson RW. Change in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration in response to administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone to healthy dogs; hypothyroid dogs; and dogs with concurrent disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:14351438.
  • 40
    Kaptein EM, Moore GE, Ferguson DC, et al. Effects of prednisone on thyroxine and 3;5;3-triiodothyronine metabolism in normal dogs. Endocrinology 1992;130:16691679.
  • 41
    Wenzel KW. Disturbances of thyroid function tests by drugs. Acta Med Austriaca 1996;23:5760.
  • 42
    Cavalieri RR. The effects of nonthyroid disease and drugs on thyroid function tests. Med Clin North Am 1991;75:2739.
  • 43
    Rubello D., Sonino N., Casara D., et al. Acute and chronic effects of high glucocorticoid levels on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in man. J Endocrinol Invest 1992;15:437441.
  • 44
    Samuels MH, Luther M., Henry P., et al. Effects of hydrocortisone on pulsatile pituitary glycoprotein secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:211215.
  • 45
    Hangaard J., Andersen M., Grodum E., et al. Pulsatile thyrotropin secretion in patients with Addison's disease during variable glucocorticoid therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:25022507.
  • 46
    Moore GE, Ferguson DC, Hoenig M. Effects of oral administration of antiinflammatory doses of prednisone on thyroid hormone response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotropin in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res 1993;54:130135.
  • 47
    Peterson ME, Ferguson DC, Kintzer PP, et al. Effects of spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism on serum thyroid hormone concentrations in the dog. Am J Vet Res 1984;45:20342038.
  • 48
    Torres S., McKeever PJ, Johnston SD. Effects of oral administration of prednisolone on thyroid function in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1991;52:416421.
  • 49
    Daminet S., Paradis M., Refsal KR, et al. Short term influence of prednisone and phenobarbital on thyroid function in euthyroid dogs. Can Vet J 1999;40:411415.
  • 50
    Graham PA, Refsal KR, Nachreiner RF. Oral prednisone did not suppress serum thyrotropin in radiothyroidectomized Beagles. Proceedings of the 16th Annual Veterinary Medical Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, San Diego, CA, 1998.
  • 51
    McClain M., Levin AA, Posch R., et al. The effect of pheno-barbital on the metabolism and excretion of thyroxine in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1989;99:216228.
  • 52
    Curran PG, Degroot LJ. The effect of hepatic enzyme–inducing drugs on thyroid hormones and the thyroid gland. Endocr Rev 1991; 12:135150.
  • 53
    Johnson S., McKillop D., Miller J., et al. The effects on rat thyroid function of an hepatic microsomal enzyme inducer. Hum Exp Toxicol 1993;12:153158.
  • 54
    Barter RA, Klaassen CD. Reduction of thyroid hormone levels and alteration on thyroid function by four representative UDP-glucu-ronosyltransferase inducers in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1994;128:917.
  • 55
    Gieger TL, Hosgood G., Taboada J., et al. Thyroid function and serum hepatic enzyme activity in dogs after phenobarbital administration. J Vet Int Med 2000;14:277281.
  • 56
    Theodoropoulos TJ, Zolman JC. Effects of phenobarbital on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in the rat. Am J Med Sci 1989; 297:224227.
  • 57
    Liu J., Liu Y., Barter RA, et al. Alteration of thyroid homeostasis by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inducers in rats: A dose-response study. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995;273:977985.
  • 58
    DeSandro V., Chevrier M., Boddaert A., et al. Comparison of the effects of propylthiouracil, amiodarone, diphenylhydantoin, phenobar-bital, and 3-methylcholanthrene on hepatic and renal T4 metabolism and thyroid gland function in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1991;111:263278.
  • 59
    Attia MA, Aref H. Hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and thyroid function in rats treated with high doses of phenobarbital or chlorpromazine. DTW Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 1991;98:205244.
  • 60
    Ohnhaus EE, Bürgi H., Burger A., et al. The effects of antipy-rine; phenobarbitol and rifampicin on thyroid hormone metabolism in man. Eur J Clin Invest 1981;11:381387.
  • 61
    Deda G., Akinci A., Teziç, et al. Effects of anticonvulsivant drugs on thyroid hormones in epileptic children. Turk J Pediatr 1992; 34:239244.
  • 62
    Verma NP, Haidukewych D. Differential but infrequent alterations of hepatic enzyme levels and thyroid hormone levels by anti-convulsivant drugs. Arch Neurol 1994;51:381384.
  • 63
    Kantrowitz LB, Peterson ME, Trepanier LA, et al. Serum total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and thyrotropin concentrations in epileptic dogs treated with anticonvulsants. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:18041808.
  • 64
    Gaskill CL, Burton SA, Gelens HC, et al. Effects of phenobar-bital treatment on serum thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in epileptic dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:489496.
  • 65
    Müller PB, Wolfsheimer KJ, Tabaoda J., et al. Effects of long-term phenobarbital treatment on the thyroid and adrenal axis and adrenal function tests in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2000;14:157164.
  • 66
    Ferguson DC. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy. In: KirkRW, ed. Current Veterinary Therapy IX. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saun-ders; 1986: 10181025.
  • 67
    Chrisman CL. Seizures. In: ChrismanCL, ed. Problems in Small Animal Neurology. Philadelphia , PA : Lea and Febiger; 1991: 191203.
  • 68
    Jaggy A., Oliver JE, Ferguson DC, et al. Neurological manifestations of hypothyroidism: A retrospective study of 29 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 1994;8:328336.
  • 69
    Jaggy A., Oliver JE. Neurologic manifestations of thyroid disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:487494.
  • 70
    DeLong RG. The neuromuscular system and brain in hypothy-roidism. In: BravermanLE, UtigerRD, eds. Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid. Philadelphia , PA : Lippincott-Raven; 1996: 826835.
  • 71
    Velicky J., Titlbach M., Lojda Z., et al. Long-term action of potassium bromide on the rat thyroid gland. Acta Histochem 1998;100:1123.
  • 72
    Loeber JG, Franken MAM, Van Leeuwen FXR. Effect of sodium bromide on endocrine parameters in the rat as studied by im-munocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Food Chem Toxicol 1983; 21:391404.
  • 73
    van Leeuwen FXR, den Tonkelaar EM, Van Logten MJ. Tox-icity of sodium bromide in rats: Effects on endocrine system and reproduction. Food Chem Toxicol 1983;21:383389.
  • 74
    Velicky J., Titlbach M., Duskova J., et al. Potassium bromide and the thyroid gland of the rat: Morphology and immunohistochemistry, RIA and INAA analysis. Ann Anat 1997;179:421431.
  • 75
    Sangster B., Blom JL, Sekhuis VM. The influence of sodium bromide in man: A study in human volunteers with special emphasis on the endocrine and the central nervous system. Food Chem Toxicol 1983;21:409419.
  • 76
    Mizukami Y., Funaki N., Hashimoto T. Histologic features of thyroid gland in a patient with bromide-induced hypothyroidism. Am J Clin Pathol 1988;89:802805.
  • 77
    Paull LC, Scott-Moncrieff JC, DeNicola DB, et al. Effect of potassium bromide (KBr) at anticonvulsant dosages on thyroid function and morphology in dogs. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Veterinary Medicine Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Seattle, WA, 2000.
  • 78
    Doerge DR, Decker CJ. Inhibition of peroxidase-catalyzed reactions by arylamines: Mechanism for the anti-thyroid action of sul-famethazine. Chem Res Toxicol 1994;7:164169.
  • 79
    Comby F., Lagorce JF, Moulard T., et al. Antibacterial sulfon-amides, antiparasitic and antifungal derivates of imidazole: Evaluation of their antithyroid effects in rats. Vet Res 1993;24:316326.
  • 80
    Cohen HN, Fyffe JA, Ratcliffe WA, et al. Effects of trimetho-prim and sulfonamide preparations on the pituitary-thyroid axis of rodents. J Endocrinol 1981;91:299303.
  • 81
    Cohen HN, Beastall GH, Ratcliffe WA, et al. Effects on human thyroid function of sulfonamide and trimethoprim combination drugs. Br Med J 1980;81:646647.
  • 82
    Lagler F., Kretzschmar R., Leuschner F., et al. Toxikologische untersucchungen der Kombination Sulfamoxoll/Trimethoprim (CN 3123 eines neuen Briet-Brandchemotherapeutikums. Arzneimmittel-forsch 1976; 26: 634643.
  • 83
    Panciera DL, Post K. Effect of oral administration of sulfadia-zine and trimethoprim in combination on thyroid function in dogs. Can J Vet Res 1992;56:349352.
  • 84
    Post K., Panciera DL, Clark EG. Lack of effect of trimethoprim and sulfadiazine in combination in mid- to late gestation on thyroid function in neonatal dogs. J Reprod Fertil 1993;47:477482.
  • 85
    Hall IA, Campbell KL, Chambers MD, et al. Effect of trimeth-oprim/sulfamethoxazole on thyroid function in dogs with pyoderma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;202:19591962.
  • 86
    Campbell KL, Nachreiner R., Schaeffer DJ, et al. Effects of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole on endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone concentration in dogs. 3rd World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, September 1996.
  • 87
    Gookin JL, Trepanier LA, Bunch SE. Clinical hypothyroidism associated with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine administration in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:10281031.
  • 88
    Torres S., McKeever P., Johnston S. Hypothyroidism in a dog associated with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine therapy. Vet Dermatol 1996; 7:105108.
  • 89
    Bishnoi A., Carlson HE, Gruber BL, et al. Effects of commonly prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on thyroid hormone measurements. Am J Med 1994;96:235238.
  • 90
    McConnell RJ. Changes in thyroid function tests during short-term salsalate use. Metabolism 1999;48:501503.
  • 91
    Larsen PR. Salicylate-induced increases in free triiodothyronine in human serum: Evidence of inhibition of triiodothyronine binding to thyroxine-binding globulin and thyroxine-binding prealbumin. J Clin Invest 1972;51:11251134.
  • 92
    McConnell RJ. Abnormal thyroid function test results in patients taking salsalate. J Am Med Assoc 1992;267:12421243.
  • 93
    Chalmers DK, Scholz GH, Topliss DJ, et al. Thyroid hormone uptake by hepatocytes: Structure-activity relationships of phenylan-thranilic acids with inhibitory activity. J Med Chem 1993;36:12721277.
  • 94
    Barlow JW, Raggatt LE, Scholz GH, et al. Preferential inhibition of cytoplasmic T3 binding is associated with reduced nuclear binding in cultured cells. Thyroid 1996;6:4751.
  • 95
    Lim CF, Loidl NM, Kennedy JA, et al. Drug effects on triio-dothyronine uptake by rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996;104:151157.
  • 96
    Carlson HE, Kael AT, Schulman PE, et al. Effects of several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on thyroid function tests. J Rheu-matol 1999;26:18551856.
  • 97
    Wang R., Nelson JC, Wilcox B. Salsalate and salicylate binding to and their displacement of thyroxine from thyroxine-binding globulin, transthyretin, and albumin. Thyroid 1999;9:359364.
  • 98
    Ferguson DC. Influence of common drugs on the free thyroxine fraction in canine serum. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Veterinary Medicine Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 1989.
  • 99
    Isaacs JP. Carprofen-pharm profile. Comp Cont Educ 1999; 3:246248.
  • 100
    Ferguson DC, Moore GE, Hoenig M. Carprofen lowers total T4 and TSH; but not free T4 concentrations in dogs. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Veterinary Medicine Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Chicago, IL, 1999.
  • 101
    Center SA, Mitchell J., Nachreiner RF, et al. Effects of pro-pranolol on thyroid function in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1984;45:109111.