• 1
    Sisson D, Kvart C, Darke PGG. Acquired valvular heart disease in dogs and cats. In: FoxPR, SissonD, MöseNS, eds. Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1999: 537563.
  • 2
    Kittleson M, Kienle R. Myxomatous atrioventricular valve degeneration. In: Small Animal Cardiovascular Medicine. St. Louis , MO : Mosby-Year Book; 1998: 297318.
  • 3
    Hansson K, Häggström J, Kvart C, et al. Left atrial to aortic root indices using two-dimensional and m-mode echocardiography in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with and without left atrial enlargement. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2002;43:568575.
  • 4
    Rishiniw M, Erb H. Evaluation of four 2-dimensional echocar-diographic methods of assessing left atrial size in dogs. J Vet Internal Med 2000;14:429435.
  • 5
    Häggström J, Hansson K, Kvart C, et al. Effects of naturally acquired decompensated mitral valve regurgitation on the renin-angio-tensin-aldosterone system and atrial natriuretic peptide concentration in dogs. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:7782.
  • 6
    Häggström J, Hansson K, Kvart C, et al. Relationship between different natriuretic peptides and severity of naturally acquired mitral regurgitation in dogs with chronic myxomatous valve disease. J Vet Cardiol 2000;2:716.
  • 7
    Kittleson MD, Eyster GE, Knowlen GG, et al. Myocardial function in small dogs with chronic mitral regurgitation and severe congestive heart failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984;184:455459.
  • 8
    Ware WA, Lund DD, Subieta AR, et al. Sympathetic activation in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by chronic mitral valve disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;197:14751481.
  • 9
    Häggström J, Hamlin RL, Hansson K, et al. Heart rate variability in relation to severity of mitral regurgitation in Cavalier King Charles spaniels. J Small Anim Pract 1996;37:6975.
  • 10
    MacDonald KA, Kitttleson MD, Munro C, et al. Brain natri-uretic peptide concentration in dogs with heart failure and congestive heart disease. J Vet Int Med 2003;17:172177.
  • 11
    Cornell CC, Kittleson MD, Della Torre P, et al. Allometric scaling of m-mode variables in normal adult dogs. In: 11th Europ Soc Vet Internal Med, Dublin, Ireland; 2001: 102103.
  • 12
    Bassingthwaite JB, Holloway A Jr. Estimation of blood flow with radioactive tracers. Semin Nucl Med 1976;6:141161.
  • 13
    Zierler K. Indicator dilution methods for measuring blood flow, volume, and other properties of biological systems: A brief history and memoir. Ann Biol Eng 2000;28:836848.
  • 14
    Milnor WN, Jose AD, McGaff CJ. Pulmonary vascular volume, resistance, and compliance in man. Circulation 1960;22:130136.
  • 15
    Giuntini C, Lewis ML, Sales Luis A, et al. A study of the pulmonary blood volume in man by quantitative radiocardiography. J Clin Invest 1963;42:15891605.
  • 16
    Slutsky RA, Bhargava V, Higgins CB. Pulmonary circulation time: comparison of mean, median, peak, and onset (appearance) values using indocyanine green and first-transit radionuclide techniques. Am Heart J 1983;106:4145.
  • 17
    Lewis ML, Gnoj J, Fisher VJ, et al. Determinants of pulmonary blood volume. J Clin Invest 1970;49:170182.
  • 18
    Donato L. Basic concepts of radiocardiography. Semin Nucl Med 1973;3:111130.
  • 19
    Kuikka J, Timisjärvi J, Tuominen M. Quantitative radiocardi-ographic evaluation of cardiac dynamics in man at rest and during exercise. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1979;39:423434.
  • 20
    Van der Walt JJ, Van Aarde MN, Van Rooyen JM, et al. The haemodynamic correlations of the cardiopulmonary flow index, a relatively non-invasive technique for diagnosis of myocardial pump insufficiency. S Afr Med J 1996;86:C9195.
  • 21
    Van der Walt JJ, Van Rooyen JM, Cilliers GD, et al. Ratio of cardiopulmonary blood volume to stroke volume as an index of cardiac function in animals in man. Cardiovasc Res 1981;15:580587.
  • 22
    van Rooyen JM, van der Walt JJ. The regulation of the ratio of the cardiopulmonary blood volume to stroke volume in sheep. Car-diovasc Res 1989;23:453459.
  • 23
    Van Aarde MN, Littlejohn A, Van der Walt JJ. The ratio of cardiopulmonary blood volume to stroke volume as an index of cardiac function in horses. Vet Res Commun 1984;8:293302.
  • 24
    Falch D, Norman N. Evaluation of a computerized technique for determination of cardiac output and central circulation times using gamma camera and 113-m indium. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1974;34:207214.
  • 25
    Goto K, Hirano A, Hirakawa S. Non-invasive estimation of the human pulmonary blood volume with gamma camera and RI-angio-cardiography. Jpn Circ J 1981;45:113119.
  • 26
    Hannan WJ, Vojacek J, Connell HM, et al. Radionuclide determined pulmonary blood volume in ischaemic heart disease. Thorax 1981;36:922927.
  • 27
    Guthrie AJ, Killeen VM, Mulders MS, et al. Use of the cardio-pulmonary flow index to evaluate cardiac function in thoroughbred horses. J S Afr Vet Assoc 1991;62:4347.
  • 28
    Iskandrian AS, Hakki AH, Kane SA, et al. Changes in pulmonary blood volume during upright exercise. Clinical implications. Chest 1982; 82: 5458.
  • 29
    Kuikka J, Pyörälä T, Lehtovirta P, et al. Cardiopulmonary blood volumes at rest and during muscular exercise measured by 113-mIn ra-diocardiography. Acta Physiol Scand 1975;95:145152.
  • 30
    Kvart C, Häggström J, Pederson HD, et al. Efficacy of enalapril for prevention of congestive heart failure in dogs with myxomatous valve disease and asymptomatic mitral regurgitation. J Vet Int Med 2002;16:8088.
  • 31
    Milne EN. Some new concepts of pulmonary blood flow and volume. Radiol Clin North Am 1978;16:515536.
  • 32
    Suter PF, Lord PF. Thoracic Radiography: A Text Atlas of Thoracic Diseases of the Dog and Cat. Wettswil , Switzerland : Peter F. Suter; 1984: 553.
  • 33
    Lane SD, Patton DD, Staab EV, et al. Simple technique for rapid bolus injection. J Nucl Med 1972;13:118119.
  • 34
    Oakley C, Glick G, Luria MN, et al. Some regulatory mechanisms of the human vascular bed. Circulation 1962;26:917930.
  • 35
    Hirakawa S, Suzuki T, Gotoh K, et al. Human pulmonary vascular and venous compliances are reduced before and during left-sided heart failure. J Appl Physiol 1995;78:323333.
  • 36
    Moraes DL, Colucci WS, Givertz MM. Secondary pulmonary hypertension in chronic heart failure: The role of the endothelium in pathophysiology and management. Circulation 2000;102:17181723.
  • 37
    Wollmer P, Rhodes CG, Allan RM, et al. Regional extravascular lung density and fractional pulmonary blood volume in patients with chronic pulmonary venous hypertension. Clin Physiol 1983;3:241256.
  • 38
    Hamlin R. Ch 11: Pathophysiology of the failing heart. In: FoxPR SD, MöseNS, eds. Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1999: 205215.
  • 39
    Pederson HD, Schütt T, Søndergaard R, et al. Decreased plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites in dogs with untreated mitral regurgitation. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17:178184.
  • 40
    Nagatsu M, Zile MR, Tsutsui H, et al. Native beta-adrenergic support for left ventricular dysfunction in experimental mitral regur-gitation normalizes indexes of pump and contractile function. Circulation 1994;89:818826.
  • 41
    Urabe Y, Mann DL, Kent RL, et al. Cellular and ventricular contractile dysfunction in experimental canine mitral regurgitation. Circulation Res 1992;70:131147.
  • 42
    Packer M. New concepts in the pathophysiology of heart failure: Beneficial and deleterious interaction of endogenous haemody-namic and neurohormonal mechanisms. J Intern Med 1996;239:327333.
  • 43
    Ware W, Bonagura JD. Pulmonary edema. In: FoxPR, SissonD, MöseNS, eds. Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 1999: 251264.
  • 44
    Staub N. Pathogenesis of pulmonary edema. Am Rev Resp Dis 1974;109:358372.
  • 45
    Carabello BA. The relationship of left ventricular geometry and hypertrophy to left ventricular function in valvular heart disease. J Heart Valve Dis 1995; 4(Suppl)2:S132S138; discussion S138–S139.
  • 46
    Katz AM. Cardiomyopathy of overload. A major determinant of prognosis in congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 100110.
  • 47
    Kihara Y, Sasayama S, Miyazaki S, et al. Role of the left atrium in adaptation of the heart to chronic mitral regurgitation in conscious dogs. Circulation Res 1988;62:543553.
  • 48
    Lee JD, Tajimi T, Patritti J, et al. Preload reserve and mechanisms of afterload mismatch in normal conscious dog. Am J Physiol 1986;250:H464473.
  • 49
    Corin WJ, Monrad ES, Murakami T, et al. The relationship of afterload to ejection performance in chronic mitral regurgitation. Circulation 1987;76:5967.