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Keywords:

  • Congenital heart diseasel;
  • Interventional devicesl;
  • Pulmonary thromboembolisml;
  • Vascular access

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital cardiac disease in the dog and generally leads to severe clinical signs, including left-sided congestive heart failure. Historically, definitive treatment consisted of surgical ligation; however, the use of vascular occlusion devices by minimally invasive techniques has gained popularity in veterinary medicine during the past decade. Adequate vascular access is a major limiting factor for these minimally invasive techniques, precluding their use in very small dogs. The clinical management of PDA with 0.025-in vascular occlusion coils in a minimally invasive transarterial technique in 10 dogs is described. The dogs were small (1.38 ± 0.22 kg), were generally young (6.70 ± 5.74 months), and had small minimal ductal diameters (1.72 ± 0.81 mm from angiography). Vascular access was achieved, and coil deployment was attempted in all dogs with a 3F catheter uncontrolled release system. Successful occlusion, defined as no angiographic residual flow, was accomplished in 8 of 10 (80%) dogs. Successful occlusion was not achieved in 2 dogs (20%), and both dogs experienced embolization of coils into the pulmonary arterial tree. One of these dogs died during the procedure, whereas the other dog underwent a successful surgical correction. We conclude that transarterial PDA occlusion in very small dogs is possible with 0.025-in vascular occlusion coils by means of a 3F catheter system and that it represents a viable alternative to surgical ligation. The risk of pulmonary arterial embolization is higher with this uncontrolled release system, but this risk may decrease with experience.