The results of this study were presented in abstract form at the 21st Annual ACVIM Forum in Charlotte, NC, June 2003.
Identification and Characterization of an Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis-Like Condition in Cats
Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008
© 2004 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 18, Issue 5, pages 632–641, September 2004
How to Cite
Cohn, L. A., Norris, C. R., Hawkins, E. C., Dye, J. A., Johnson, C. A. and Williams, K. J. (2004), Identification and Characterization of an Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis-Like Condition in Cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 18: 632–641. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2004.tb02598.x
- Issue published online: 5 FEB 2008
- Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008
- Revised January 16, 2004; Accepted February 24, 2004
- Interstitial lung disease;
- Usual interstitial pneumonia
Interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders with a variety of causes. In veterinary medicine, such lung diseases with a prominent fibrotic component of unknown etiology are often called idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In human medicine, this term is reserved for a distinct disease entity with specific histologic findings labeled as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). We identified 23 cats displaying histologic criteria of UIP. The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the presentation and response to therapy of these cats to better define this disease entity. All but 2 cats were middle aged to older (median 8.7 years), with no apparent sex or breed predisposition. Complaints included respiratory distress (n = 18) and cough (13). Duration of signs was less than 6 months in 17 cats. Physical-examination abnormalities included tachypnea, inspiratory or mixed inspiratory and expiratory effort, and adventitial lung sounds. No consistent hematologic or biochemical abnormalities, parasites, or positive serologic results for feline retroviruses, heartworms, or toxoplasmosis were present. Radiographic changes included dense patchy or diffuse interstitial, bronchiolar, and alveolar infiltrates. Analysis of bronchial lavage fluid revealed mild neutrophilic inflammation (n = 6) with no consistent pathogen growth. Clinical condition of 5 cats worsened after lavage. Coincident pulmonary neoplasia was identified in 6 cats. Response to therapy (corticosteroids, antibiotics, bronchodilators, and diuretics) was poor, and most cats died within days to months. Cats with histologic changes compatible with UIP had signs that mimicked many of the clinical findings of human IPF, and treatment response was similarly unrewarding.