• 1
    Gayle JM, Cohen ND, Chaffin MK. Factors associated with survival in septicemic foals: 65 cases (1988–1988). J Vet Intern Med 1998; 12: 140146.
  • 2
    Marsh PS, Palmer JE. Bacterial isolates from blood and their susceptibility patterns in critically ill foals: 543 cases (1991–1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 218: 16081610.
  • 3
    Wilson WD, Madigan JE. Comparison of bacteriologic culture of blood and necropsy specimens for determining the cause of foal septicemia: 47 cases (1978–1978). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989; 195: 17591763.
  • 4
    Paradis MR. Update on neonatal septicemia. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1994;10:109135.
  • 5
    Brewer BD. Neonatal infection. In: KoterbaAM, DrummondWH, KoschPC, eds. Equine Clinical Neonatology. Philadelphia , PA : Lea & Febiger; 1990: 295316.
  • 6
    Moore RD, Lietman PS, Smith CR. Clinical response to ami-noglycoside therapy: Importance of the ratio of peak concentration to minimal inhibitory concentration. J Infect Dis 1987;155:9399.
  • 7
    Ebert SC, Craig WA. Pharmacodynamic properties of antibiotics: Application to drug monitoring and dosage regimen design. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1990;11:319326.
  • 8
    Jackson GG, Lolans VT, Daikos GL. The inductive role of ionic binding in the bactericidal and postexposure effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics with implications for dosing. J Infect Dis 1990;162:408413.
  • 9
    Karlowsky JA, Zhanel GG, Davidson RJ, et al. Once-daily ami-noglycoside dosing assessed by MIC reversion time with Pseudomo-nas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994; 38: 11651168.
  • 10
    Green SL, Conlon PD. Clinical pharmacokinetics of amikacin in hypoxic premature foals. Equine Vet J 1993;25:276280.
  • 11
    Green S., Conlon PD, Mama K., et al. Effects of hypoxia and azotaemia on the pharmacokinetics of amikacin in neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 1992;24:475479.
  • 12
    Wichtel MG, Breuhaus BA, Aucoin D. Relation between phar-macokinetics of amikacin sulfate and sepsis score in clinically normal and hospitalized neonatal foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;200:13391343.
  • 13
    Adland-Davenport P., Brown MP, Robinson JD, et al. Pharma-cokinetics of amikacin in critically ill neonatal foals treated for presumed or confirmed sepsis. Equine Vet J 1990;22:1822.
  • 14
    Reiner NE, Bloxham DD, Thompson WL. Nephrotoxicity of gentamicin and tobramycin given once daily or continuously in dogs. J Antimicrob Chemother 1978;4(Suppl A):85101.
  • 15
    Verpooten GA, Giuliano RA, Verbist L., et al. Once-daily dosing decreases renal accumulation of gentamicin and netilmicin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989;45:2227.
  • 16
    Brewer BD, Koterba AM. Development of a scoring system for the early diagnosis of equine neonatal sepsis. Equine Vet J 1988;20:1822.
  • 17
    Gibaldi M., Perrier D. Pharmacokinetics. New York , NY : Marcel Dekker; 1982: 409417.
  • 18
    Jones RN, Gavan TL, Barry AI. Evaluation of the Sensititre microdilution antibiotic susceptibility system against recent clinical isolates: Three-laboratory collaborative study. J Clin Microbiol 1980; 11:426429.
  • 19
    Gavan TL, Jones RN, Barry AI. Evaluation of the Sensititre system for quantitative antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing: A collaborative study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1980;17:464469.
  • 20
    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals; Approved Standards. NCCLS document M31-A. Wayne , PA : National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 1999.
  • 21
    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically, 4th ed. NCCLS document M7-A4. Wayne , PA : National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 1997.
  • 22
    Freeman CD, Nicolau DP, Belliveau PP, et al. Once-daily dosing of aminoglycosides: Review and recommendations for clinical practice. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997;39:677686.
  • 23
    Maglio D., Nightingale CH, Nicolau DP. Extended interval ami-noglycoside dosing: From concept to clinic. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2002;19:341348.
  • 24
    Godber LM, Walker RD, GE Stein, et al. Pharmacokinetics, nephrotoxicosis, and in vitro antibacterial activity associated with single versus multiple (three times) daily gentamicin treatments in horses. Am J Vet Res 1995;56:613618.
  • 25
    Magdesian KG, Wilson WD, Mihalyi J. 2004. Pharmacokinetics of a high dose of amikacin administered at extended intervals to neonatal foals. Am J Vet Res 2004; 65: 473479.
  • 26
    Lent-Evers NA, Mathot RA, Geus WP, et al. Impact of goal-oriented and model-based clinical pharmacokinetic dosing of amino-glycosides on clinical outcome: A cost-effectiveness analysis. Ther Drug Monit 1999;21:6373.
  • 27
    McKenzie HC, Furr MO. Aminoglycoside antibiotics in neonatal foals. Compend Cont Educ Pract Vet 2003;25:457469.
  • 28
    Janknegt R. Aminoglycoside monitoring in the once- or twice-daily era. The Dutch situation considered. Pharm World Sci 1993; 15: 151155.
  • 29
    Tod MM, Padoin C., Petitjean O. Individualising aminoglyco-side dosage regimens after therapeutic drug monitoring: simple or complex pharmacokinetic methods Clin Pharmacokinet 2001;40:803814.
  • 30
    Prins JM, Koopmans RP, Buller HR, et al. Easier monitoring of aminoglycoside therapy with once-daily dosing schedules. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1995;14:531535.
  • 31
    Tange RA, Dreschler WA, Prins JM, et al. Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity of gentamicin vs netilmicin in patients with serious infections. A randomized clinical trial. Clin Otolaryngol 1995; 20: 118123.
  • 32
    Bartal C., Danon A., Schlaeffer F., et al. Pharmacokinetic dosing of aminoglycosides: A controlled trial. Am J Med 2003;114:194198.
  • 33
    Kotze A., Bartel PR, Sommers DK. Once versus twice daily amikacin in neonates: Prospective study on toxicity. J Paediatr Child Health 1999;35:283286.
  • 34
    Labaune JM, Bleyzac N., Maire P., et al. Once-a-day individualized amikacin dosing for suspected infection at birth based on population pharmacokinetic models. Biol Neonate 2001;80:142147.
  • 35
    Marik PE, Lipman J., Kobilski S., et al. A prospective randomized study comparing once- versus twice-daily amikacin dosing in critically ill adult and paediatric patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 1991; 28:753764.
  • 36
    Divers TJ. Spurious elevations in serum creatinine. In: Mc-KinnonAO, VossJL, eds. Equine Reproduction. Philadelphia , PA : Lea & Febiger; 1993: 10391040.
  • 37
    Deziel-Evans LM, Murphy JE, Job ML. Correlation of pharmacokinetic indices with therapeutic outcome in patients receiving aminoglycosides. Clin Pharm 1986;5:319324.