Dysmyelopoiesis is defined as a hematologic disorder characterized by the presence of cytopenias in the blood and dysplastic cells in one or more hematologic cell lines in the blood or bone marrow. The causes of dysmyelopoiesis include acquired mutations in hematopoietic stem cells (ie, myelodysplastic syndromes [MDSs]), congenital defects in hematopoiesis, and dysmyelopoietic conditions associated with various disease processes, drug treatments, or toxin exposure. Two major subtypes of MDSs (ie, MDS with refractory cytopenias and MDS with excess myeloblasts) have been described that differ in clinical presentation, response to treatment, and survival time. The most frequently occurring causes of secondary dysmyelopoiesis include immune-mediated hematologic diseases, lymphoid malignancies, and exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs. Differentiation of the various causes of dysmyelopoiesis is essential for establishing an appropriate therapeutic plan and for determining prognosis.