• 1
    Phillips I., Casewell M., Cox T., et al. Does the use of antibiotics in food animals pose a risk to human health? A critical review of published data. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;53:2852.
  • 2
    US General Accounting Office. Antibiotic resistance: Federal agencies need to better focus efforts to address risk to humans from antibiotic use in animals. Washington, DC: GAO-04–490, April 2004. Available at http:www.gao.govcgi-bin. getrpt?GAO-04–490. Accessed May 30, 2004.
  • 4
    National Academy of Sciences-Committee on Drug Use in Food Animal, National Research Council, Institute of Medicine. The Use of Drugs in Food Animals: Benefits and Risks. Washington , DC : National Academy Press; 1999:79.
  • 5
    American Veterinary Medical Association. AVMA Guidelines for judicious therapeutic use of antimicrobial drugs. Available at http:www.avma.orgscienactjtuadefault.asp. Accessed May 30, 2004.
  • 6
    Prescott JF, Baggot JD. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and antimicrobial drug dosage. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985;187:363368.
  • 7
    US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Initiation and conduct of all ‘major’ risk assessments within a risk analysis framework (a report by the CFSAN Risk Analysis Working Group, March 2002). Available at Accessed May 30, 2004.
  • 8
    Davies JE. Origins, acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants. Ciba Found Symp 1997;207:1535.
  • 9
    Tenover FC. Development and spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents: An overview. Clin Infect Dis 2001(Sep 15);33(Suppl 3):S108S115.
  • 10
    Houndt T., Ochman H. Long-term shifts in patterns of antibiotic resistance in enteric bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000;66:54065409.
  • 11
    Aarestrup FM, Bager F., Andersen JS. Association between the use of avilamycin for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers: Epidemiological study and changes over time. Microb Drug Resist 2000;6:7175.
  • 12
    Doern GV, Pfaller MA, Kugler K., et al. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory tract isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in North America: 1997 results from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. Clin Infect Dis 1998;27:764770.
  • 13
    Gorwitz RJ, Nakashima AK, Moran JS, Knapp JS. Sentinel surveillance for antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae—United States, 1988–1991. The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project Study Group. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 1993;42:2939.
  • 14
    Martin JN, Rose DA, Hadley WK, et al. Emergence of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in the AIDS era. J Infect Dis 1999;180:18091818.
  • 15
    Schroeder CM, Zhao C., DebRoy C., et al. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O157 isolated from humans, cattle, swine, and food. Appl Environ Microbiol 2002;68:576581.
  • 16
    Cohn LA, Gary AT, Fales WH, Madsen RW. Trends in fluoroquinolone resistance of bacteria isolated from canine urinary tracts. J Vet Diagn Invest 2003;15:338343.
  • 17
    Lee K., Jang SJ, Lee HJ, et al. Increasing prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, expanded-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Korea: KONSAR study in 2001. J Korean Med Sci 2004;19:814.
  • 18
    Ho PL, Que TL, Chiu SS, et al. Fluoroquinolone and other antimicrobial resistance in invasive pneumococci, Hong Kong, 1995–2001. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:12501257.
  • 19
    Biedenbach DJ, Jones RN. Five-year analysis of Haemophilus influenzae isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones: Prevalence results from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2003;46:5561.
  • 20
    Aarestrup FM, Kruse H., Tast E., et al. Associations between the use of antimicrobial agents for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs in Denmark, Finland, and Norway. Microb Drug Resist 2000;6:6370.
  • 21
    Rapp RP, Ribes JA, Overman SB, et al. A decade of antimicrobial susceptibilities at the University of Kentucky Hospital. Ann Pharmacother 2002;26:596605.
  • 22
    Owens RC, Fraser GL, Stogsdill P. Antimicrobial stewardship programs as a means to optimize antimicrobial use. Pharmacotherapy 2004;24:896908.
  • 23
    Cook PP, Catrou PG, Christie JD, et al. Reduction in broad-spectrum antimicrobial use associated with no improvement in hospital antibiogram. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;53:853859.
  • 24
    Langlois BE, Dawson KA, Leak I., Aaron DK. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal coliforms from pigs in a herd not exposed to antimicrobial agents for 126 months. Vet Microbiol 1988;18:147153.
  • 25
    American Veterinary Medical Association. Veterinarian's oath. Available at http:www.avma.orgmembshpabout.asp. Accessed May 30, 2004.
  • 26
    World Health Organization. Containing Antimicrobial Resistance: Review of the Literature and Report of a WHO Workshop on the Development of a Global Strategy for the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization WHO/CDS/CSR/DRS/99.2; 1999.
  • 27
    World Health Organization. The Medical Impact of the Use of Antimicrobials in Food Animals. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization WHO/EMC/ZOO; 1997.
  • 28
    World Health Organization. Global Principles for the Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals Intended for Food. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000.4; 2000.
  • 29
    Anonymous. Does the animal drug prescription and over-the-counter issue impact human and animal health? Proceedings of the 6th Biennial American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Symposium, Blacksburg, VA, 1988.
  • 30
    Bell D. Development of the public health action plan to combat antimicrobial resistance. In: KnoblerSL, LemonSM, NajafiM., BurroughsT., eds. The Resistance Phenomenon in Microbes and Infectious Disease Vectors: Implications for Human Health and Strategies for Containment: Workshop Summary, Forum on Emerging Infections. Washington , DC : National Academy Press; 2003:198206.
  • 31
    Infectious Disease Society of America. Practice guidelines. Available at Template.cfm?Section=Practice_Guidelines. Accessed May 29, 2003.
  • 32
    Kish MA. Guide to development of practice guidelines. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32:851854.
  • 33
    National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Division of Medical Sciences Ad Hoc Committee on Trauma. Postoperative infections. Ann Surg 1964;160(Suppl 2):1192.
  • 34
    (ASHP) American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ASHP Commission on Therapeutics: ASHP therapeutic guidelines on antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:18391888. Available at bestpractices/tg/Therapeutic%20Guideline%20Antimicrobial%20Prophylaxis%20in%20Surgery.pdf. Accessed May 29, 2004.
  • 35
    DellingerEP, GrossPA, BarrettTL, et al, eds. Quality standards for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgical procedures. Clin Infect Dis 1994;18:422427.
  • 36
    Turnidge JD, Jorgensen JH. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: General considerations. In: MurrayPR, BaronEJ, JorgensenJH, et al, eds. The Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 7th ed. Washington , DC : American Society for Microbiology; 1999:14691473.
  • 37
    (NCCLS) National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals, Approved Standard M31-A2. Wayne , PA : NCCLS; 2001.
  • 38
    Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Veterinary antimicrobial decision system. Available at http:www.vetmed.iastate.edudepartmentsvdpampamvads.asp. Accessed May 30, 2004.
  • 39
    Department of Health and Human Services. A public health action plan to combat antimicrobial resistance. Available at http:www.cdc.govdrugresistanceactionplanhtml. prevention1.htm#item26. Accessed May 30, 2004.