Acid-Base and Electrolyte Abnormalities in Dogs with Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
© 2005 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 19, Issue 6, pages 816–821, November 2005
How to Cite
Boag, A. K., Coe, R. J., Martinez, T. A. and Hughes, D. (2005), Acid-Base and Electrolyte Abnormalities in Dogs with Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 19: 816–821. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2005.tb02770.x
- Issue published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Revised April 5, 2005; Accepted June 22, 2005.
Gastrointestinal foreign bodies occur commonly in dogs. The objective of the study was to describe the acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities identified in dogs with gastrointestinal foreign bodies and determine if these abnormalities are related to the site or type of foreign body present. Medical records of 138 dogs were reviewed, and information on signalment, initial venous electrolyte and acid-base values, surgical findings, relevant historical information, imaging modalities used, cost of hospital visit, intra- or postoperative complications, and survival was obtained. The site of the foreign body was recorded in 94.9% of cases and the most common site was the stomach (50%), followed by the jejunum (27.5%). The foreign bodies were linear in 36.2% of cases. The most common electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities regardless of the site or type of foreign body were hypochloremia (51.2%), metabolic alkalosis (45.2%), hypokalemia (25%), and hyponatremia (20.5%). No significant association was found between electrolyte or acid-base abnormalities and the site of foreign body. Linear, as opposed to discrete, foreign bodies were more likely to be associated with a low serum sodium concentration (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.75–0.95). Hyperlactatemia (>2.4 mmol/L) was seen in 40.5% of dogs. A wide variety of electrolyte and acid-base derangements are found in dogs with gastrointestinal foreign bodies. Hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis are common in these dogs. Hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis is seen with both proximal and distal gastrointestinal foreign bodies.