SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Bliskslager AT, Jones SL. Obstructive disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In: ReedSM, BaylyWW, SellonCD, eds. Equine Internal Medicine, 2nd ed. Philadelphia : WB Saunders Co; 1998: 922936.
  • 2
    Johnson PJ. Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances in the horse. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1995; 11: 491514.
  • 3
    Aguilera-Tejero E., Estepa JC, López I., et al. Plasma ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations in horses after endurance rides. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219: 488490.
  • 4
    Hoffman RM, Hess TM, Williams DS, et al. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in a 80 km race. Equine Vet J 2002;34 (Suppl):3943.
  • 5
    Jansson A., Lindholm A., Lindberg JE, et al. Effects of potassium intake on potassium, sodium and fluid balance in exercising horses. Equine Vet J 1999; 30 (Suppl):412417.
  • 6
    Kronfield DS, Ferrante PL, Taylor LE, et al. Partition of plasma ion concentration changes during repeated sprints. Equine Vet J 1999; 30 (Suppl): 380383.
  • 7
    Soma LR, Uboh CE, Nann L., et al. Prerace venous blood acid-base values in Standardbred horses. Equine Vet J 1996; 5: 390396.
  • 8
    Aguilera-Tejero E., Estepa JC, López I., et al. Arterial blood gases and acid-base balance in healthy and aged horses. Equine Vet J 1998; 4: 352354.
  • 9
    Aguilera-Tejero E., Estepa JC, López I., et al. Quantitative analysis of acid-base balance in show jumpers before and after exercise. Res Vet Sci 2000; 68: 103108.
  • 10
    Roussel AJ, Cohen ND, Holland PS, et al. Alterations in acid-base and serum electrolyte concentrations in cattle: 632 cases (1984–1994). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212: 17691775.
  • 11
    Rose BD. Clinical Physiology of Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders, 5th ed. New York , NY : McGraw-Hill Inc; 2001: 535548.
  • 12
    Larsen J. Acid-base and electrolyte balance in horses with various gastrointestinal disorders. Proc Equine Colic Res Symp, Athens, Georgia, 1994; 5: 9.
  • 13
    Nappert G., Johnson PJ. Determination of the acid-base status in 50 horses admitted with colic between December 1998 and May 1999. Can Vet J 2001; 42: 703707.
  • 14
    Constable PD. A simplified strong ion model for acid-base equilibria: Application to horse plasma. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83: 297311.
  • 15
    Constable PD. Clinical assessment of acid-base status. Strong ion difference theory. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1999; 15: 447471.
  • 16
    Russell KE, Hansen BD, Stevens JB. Strong ion difference approach to acid-base imbalances with clinical applications to dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1996; 26: 11851201.
  • 17
    Constable PD, Hinchcliff KW, Muir WW III. Comparison of anion gap and strong ion gap as predictors of unmeasured strong ion concentration in plasma and serum from horses. Am J Vet Res 1998; 59: 881887.
  • 18
    Stampfli HR, Misiaszek S., Lumsden JH, et al. Weak acid-concentration Atot and dissociation constant Ka of plasma proteins in race horses. Equine Vet J 1999; 30: 438442.
  • 19
    Corley KTT, Marr CM. Pathophysiology assessment and treatment of acid-base disturbances in the horse. Equine Vet Edu 1998; 10: 255265.
  • 20
    Robertson JT. Diseases of the small intestine. In: WhiteNA, ed. The Equine Acute Abdomen. Philadelphia , PA : Lea and Febiger; 1990: 347368.
  • 21
    Dart AJ, Snyder JR, Spier SJ, et al. Ionized calcium concentration in horses with surgically managed gastrointestinal disease: 147 cases (1988–1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995; 201: 12441248.
  • 22
    García-López JM, Provost PJ, Rush JE, et al. Prevalence and prognostic importance of hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia in horses that have colic surgery. Am J Vet Res 2001; 62: 711.
  • 23
    Kolk JH, Nachreiner RF, Refsal KR, et al. Heparinised blood ionised calcium concentrations in horses with colic or diarrhoea compared to normal subjects. Equine Vet J 2002; 34: 528531.
  • 24
    Reef VB. Adult abdominal ultrasonography. In: ReefVB, ed. Equine Diagnostic Ultrasound. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders Company; 1998: 273363.
  • 25
    Kellum JA, Kramer DJ, Pinsky MR. Strong ion gap: A methodology for exploring unexplained anions. J Crit Care 1995; 10: 5155.
  • 26
    Gilfix BM, Bique M., Magder S. A physical chemical approach to the analysis of acid-base balance in the clinical setting. J Crit Care 1993; 8: 187197.
  • 27
    Fencl V., Leith DE. Stewart's quantitative acid-base chemistry: Applications in biology and medicine. Respir Physiol 1993; 91: 116.
  • 28
    Constable PD. A simplified strong ion model for acid-base equilibria: Application to horse plasma. J Appl Physiol 1997; 83: 297311.
  • 29
    Aderka D., Schwartz D., Dan M., et al. Bacteremic hypocalcemia. A comparison between calcium levels of bacteremic and non-bacteremic patients with infection. Arch Intern Med 1987; 147: 232236.
  • 30
    Zaloga GP, Wilkens R., Tourville J., et al. A simple method for determining physiologically active calcium and magnesium concentrations in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 1987; 15: 813816.
  • 31
    Brobst D. Review of the pathophysiology of alterations in potassium homeostasis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986; 188: 10191025.
  • 32
    Johnson PJ, Goetz TE, Foreman JH. Effect of whole-body potassium depletion on plasma, erythrocyte, and middle gluteal muscle potassium concentration of healthy, adult horse. Am J Vet Res 1991; 52: 16761683.
  • 33
    Gosset KA, French DD, Clegnorn BS, Church GE. Effect of acute acidemia on blood biochemical variables in healthy ponies. Am J Vet Res 1990; 51: 13751379.
  • 34
    Johansson AM, Gardner SY, Jones SL, et al. Hypomagnesemia in hospitalised horses. J Vet Intern Med 2003; 17: 860867.
  • 35
    Ecke P., Hodgson DR, Rose RJ. Induced diarrhoea in horses. Part I: Fluid and electrolyte balance. Vet J 1998; 155: 149159.
  • 36
    Brownlow MA, Hutchins DR. The concept of osmolality: Its use in the evaluation of dehydration in the horse. Equine Vet J 1982; 14: 106110.
  • 37
    Arden WA, Stick JA. Serum and peritoneal fluid phosphate concentrations as predictor of major intestinal injury associated with equine colic. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1988; 193: 927931.
  • 38
    Scott EA, Herdel JR, Snyder SP, et al. Inflammatory bowel disease in horses: 11 cases (1988–1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999; 214: 15271531.
  • 39
    Bristol DG. The anion gap as prognostic indicator in horses with abdominal pain. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982; 181: 6365.
  • 40
    Edwards GB. Examination of the horse. In: WhiteNA, EdwardsGB, eds. Handbook of Equine Colic. Oxford , UK : Butterworth Heinemann; 1999: 840.