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Keywords:

  • Canine;
  • Carcinoma;
  • Kidney;
  • Nephroblastoma;
  • Sarcoma

Background:Primary renal tumors are diagnosed uncommonly in dogs.

Hypothesis:Signs and survival will differ among different categories of primary renal tumors.

Animals:Data were collected from the medical records of 82 dogs with primary renal tumors diagnosed by examination of tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy, needle aspiration, surgery, or at postmortem examination.

Methods:This was a multi-institutional, retrospective study.

Results:Forty-nine dogs had carcinomas, 28 had sarcomas, and 5 had nephroblastomas. The dogs were geriatric (mean 8.1 years; range: 1–17) with a weight of 24.9 kg (range: 4.5–80). Tumors occurred with equal frequency in each kidney with 4% occurring bilaterally. Initial signs included one or more of hematuria, inappetance, lethargy, weight loss, or a palpable abdominal mass. Pain was reported more frequently in dogs with sarcomas (5/28). The most common hematologic abnormalities were neutrophilia (22/63), anemia (21/64), and thrombocytopenia (6/68). Polycythemia was present in 3 dogs and resolved with treatment. Hematuria (28/49), pyuria (26/49), proteinuria (24/50), and isosthenuria (20/56) were the most frequently observed abnormalities on urinalysis. Pulmonary metastases were noted on thoracic radiographs in 16% of dogs at diagnosis. Seventy-seven percent of dogs had metastatic disease at the time of death. Median survival for dogs with carcinomas was 16 months (range 0–59 months), for dogs with sarcomas 9 months (range 0–70 months), and for dogs with nephroblastomas 6 months (range 0–6 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Primary renal tumors in dogs are generally highly malignant with surgery being the only treatment that improves survival.