• Blood pressure;
  • Canine;
  • Glomerulopathy;
  • Hypertensive retinopathy;
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy

A prospective study was performed (November 1998 to December 2003) to determine the prevalence of systemic hypertension (SH) in dogs with glomerular disease secondary to leishmaniasis. One hundred and five dogs with leishmaniasis were screened and staged for the presence of renal disease (RD) and SH. For the purpose of the study, RD was defined as serum creatinine concentration ≥ 1.4 mg/dL, a urine protein/creatinine ratio ≥ 0.5, or both. SH was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 180 mm Hg or an SBP between 150 and 179 mm Hg in the presence of clinical manifestations of SH. Fifty-two (49.5%) of the dogs had some degree of RD, and 32 (61.5%) of these dogs were diagnosed with SH. Moreover, SH also was diagnosed in 3 dogs without RD. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), estimated by echocardiography, was the most frequently observed systemic consequence of hypertension, being present in 32 (91.4%) of the hypertensive dogs. Echocardiographic abnormalities were not detected in any of the 33 dogs with leishmaniasis without RD, which were used as controls. Ocular consequences of SH were observed in only 2 (5.7%) of the dogs with hypertension. We conclude that SH is prevalent in dogs with RD secondary to leishmaniasis, not only in the more severe stages but also in the early course of the illness before azotemia becomes apparent. Canine leishmaniasis may be a useful natural model to study SH secondary to glomerular disease.