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Keywords:

  • Hemoperitoneum;
  • Kidney tumor;
  • Sarcoma;
  • Vascular neoplasia

Background: Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a common solid tumor of the spleen, heart, and skin of dogs. Renal HSA represents an uncommon anatomic variant, with little reported about its biologic behavior and clinical outcome.

Hypothesis: That renal HSA is associated with longer survival than other visceral forms of HSA.

Animals: 14 dogs with renal HSA.

Methods: Medical records from 1999 to 2004 were searched for dogs with histopathologically confirmed renal HSA, and data relevant to clinical signs, treatments, and outcomes were abstracted.

Results: Clinical signs were nonspecific, and the median duration of clinical signs before diagnosis was 60 days. Two dogs presented in cardiovascular collapse secondary to hemoperitoneum. Common hematologic and biochemical abnormalities were anemia (9/14), hematuria (7/14), and proteinuria (7/14). One dog had pulmonary metastasis at diagnosis. All dogs had evidence of a renal mass visualized by abdominal radiography (14/14), ultrasound (9/14), or both. All dogs underwent nephrectomy, and 4/14 dogs also received adjunctive chemotherapy. Median survival time of all dogs was 278 days (range 0–1,005 days), and dogs with hemoperitoneum had significantly shorter survival times than dogs without hemoperitoneum (62 days versus 286 days, P < .001).

Conclusions and Clinical Importance: These results indicate that hemoperitoneum and distant metastasis at diagnosis appear to occur less frequently in dogs with renal HSA compared with other visceral forms of HSA. Furthermore, dogs with renal HSA have protracted disease progression, with improved 1 -year survival rates and longer median survival time compared to dogs with splenic, cardiac, and retroperitoneal HSA.