• Chiari malformation;
  • Occipital hypoplasia;
  • Syringohydromyelia;
  • Syrinx;
  • Cavalier King Charles Spaniel;
  • Dysesthesia;
  • Cine magnetic resonance imaging;
  • Pathophysiology;
  • Suboccipital decompression;
  • Medical management

Syringomyelia is a condition that results in fluid-containing cavities within the parenchyma of the spinal cord as a consequence of altered cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. This review discusses the history and the classification of the disorder, the current theories of pathogenesis, and the advanced imaging modalities used in the diagnosis. The intramedullary pulse pressure theory (a new pathophysiologic concept of syringomyelia) also is presented. In addition, the current understanding of the painful nature of this condition is discussed and the current trends in medical and surgical management are reviewed.