• 1
    German AJ. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr 2006;136:1940S1946.
  • 2
    Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, et al. Health status and population characteristics of dogs and cats examined at private veterinary practices in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:13361341.
  • 3
    Kealy RD, Lawler DF, Ballam JM, et al. Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:13151320.
  • 4
    Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, Klausner JF. Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult dogs from private US veterinary practices. Intern J Appl Res Vet Med, 2006: 4: 177186.
  • 5
    Re G., Borghys H., Cuniberti B., Engelen M., Barbero R. Microsomal transfer protein (MTP): a novel anti-obesity target in dogs. Proceedings of the 16th European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands 2006; 9597.
  • 6
    Laflamme DP, Kuhlman G. The effect of weight-loss regimen on subsequent weight maintenance in dogs. Nutr Res 1995;15:10191028.
  • 7
    Borne AT, Wolfsheimer KJ, Truett AA, et al. Differential metabolic effects of energy restriction in dogs using diets varying in fat and fiber content. Obesity Res 1996;4:337345.
  • 8
    Diez M., Nguyen P., Jeusette I., et al. Weight loss in obese dogs: Evaluation of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. J Nutr 2002; 132:168581687S.
  • 9
    Markwell PJ, Butterwick RF, Wills JM, Raiha M. Clinical studies in the management of obesity in dogs and cats. Int J Obesity 1994;18(Suppl 1):S39S43.
  • 10
    Mlacnik E., Bockstahler BA, Müller M., et al. Effects of caloric restriction and a moderate or intense physiotherapy program for treatment of lameness in overweight dogs with osteoarthritis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:17561760.
  • 11
    Saker KE, Remillard RL. Performance of a canine weightloss program in clinical practice. Vet Ther 2005;6:291302.
  • 12
    Yaissle JE, Hollo Way C., Buffington CA. Evaluation of owner education as a component of obesity treatment programs for dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:19321935.
  • 13
    Prentice AM, Goldberg OR, Jebb SA, et al. Physiologicalresponses to slimming. Proc Nutr Soc 1991;50:44158.
  • 14
    Butterwick RF, Markwell PJ. Changes in the body composition of cats during weight reduction by controlled dietary energy restriction. Vet Rec 1996; 138:354357.
  • 15
    Forbes GB. Lean body mass-body fat interrelationships in humans. Nutr Rev 1987;45:225231.
  • 16
    Laflamme D. Development and validation of a body condition score system for dogs. Canine Pract 1997;22:1015.
  • 17
    Raffan E., Holden SL, Cullingham F., et al. Standardized positioning is essential for precise determination of body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in dogs. J Nutr 2006;136:1976S1978.
  • 18
    Mawby D., Bartges JW, D'Avignon A., et al. Comparison of various methods for estimating body fat in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2004;40:109114.
  • 19
    National Research Council (NRC), Nutrient requirements of dogs. Washington DC : National Academy Press; 1974.
  • 20
    Humphries C. The hugely better calorie counter Slough, UK : Foulsham; 2002.
  • 21
    Kellow JWR. The calorie, carb and fat bible. Peterborough , UK : Weight Loss Resources; 2006.
  • 22
    National Research Council (NRC), Nutrient requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington DC : National Academy Press; 2006.
  • 23
    Heitmann BL, Lissner L., Osier M. Do we eat less fat, or just report so Int J Obesity 2000;24:43542.
  • 24
    Jeusette I., Detilleux J., Cuvelier C., et al. Ad libitum feeding following ovariectomy in female Beagle dogs: effect on maintenance energy requirement and on blood metabolites. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 2004;88:117121.
  • 25
    Ross R., Pedwell H., Rissanen J. Effects of energy restriction and exercise on skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissue in women as measured by magnetic-resonance-imaging. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61:11791185.
  • 26
    Ross R., Rissanen J., Pedwell H., et al. Influence of diet and exercise on skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue in men. J Appl Physiol 1996;81:24452455.