• 1
    Baddour LM, Bettmann MA, Bolger AF, et al. Nonvalvular cardiovascular device-related infections. Circulation 2003; 108: 20152031.
  • 2
    Bluhm G. Pacemaker infections. A clinical study with special reference to prophylactic use of some isoxazolyl penicillins. Acta Med Scand Suppl 1985: 699:162.
  • 3
    Cohen MI, Bush DM, Gaynor JW, et al. Pediatric pacemaker infections: twenty years of experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002;124:821827.
  • 4
    Lemire GG, Morin JE, Dobell AR. Pacemaker infections: a 12-year review. Can J Surg 1975;18:181184.
  • 5
    Wess G., Thomas WP, Berger DM, et al. Applications, complications, and outcomes of transvenous pacemaker implantation in 105 dogs (1997–2002). J Vet Intern Med 2006;20:877884.
  • 6
    Domenech O., Santilli R., Pradelli D., et al. The implantation of a permanent transvenous endocardial pacemaker in 42 dogs: a retrospective study. Med Sci Monit 2005;11:BR168BR175.
  • 7
    Oyama MA, Sisson DD, Lehmkuhl LB. Practices and outcome of artificial cardiac pacing in 154 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2001;15:229239.
  • 8
    Sisson D., Thomas WP, Woodfield J., et al. Permanent transvenous pacemaker implantation in forty dogs. J Vet Intern Med 1991;5:322331.
  • 9
    Darke PG, McAreavey D., Been M. Transvenous cardiac pacing in 19 dogs and one cat. J Small Anim Pract 1989: 30: 49199.
  • 10
    Bonagura JD, Helphrey ML, Muir WW. Complications associated with permanent pacemaker implantation in the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1983; 182:149155.
  • 11
    Wood AC, Fine DM, Spier AW, et al. Septicemia in a young dog following treatment of patent ductus arteriosus via coil occlusion. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:19011904.
  • 12
    Karchmer AW, Longworth DL. Infections of intracardiac devices. Cardiol Clin 2003;21:253271.
  • 13
    Klug D., Lacroix D., Savoye C., et al. Systemic infection related to endocarditis on pacemaker leads: clinical presentation and management. Circulation 1997;95:20982107.
  • 14
    Donlan RM. Biofilm formation: a clinically relevant microbiological process. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:13871392.
  • 15
    Shive MS, Brodbeck WG, Colton E., et al. Shear stress and material surface effects on adherent human monocyte apoptosis. J Biomed Mater Res 2002;60:148158.
  • 16
    del Rio A., Anguera I., Miro JM, et al. Surgical treatment of pacemaker and defibrillator lead endocarditis: The impact of electrode lead extraction on outcome. Chest 2003;124:14511459.
  • 17
    Laguno M., Miro O., Font C., et al. Pacemaker-related endocarditis. Report of 7 cases and review of the literature. Cardiology 1998: 90: 244248.
  • 18
    Arber N., Pras E., Copperman Y., et al. Pacemaker endocarditis. Report of 44 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 1994: 73: 299305.
  • 19
    Fayad G., Modine T., Mokhtari S., et al. Pasteurella multocida aortic valve endocarditis: Case report and literature review. J Heart Valve Dis 2003;12:261263.
  • 20
    Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, et al. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999;20: 247280.
  • 21
    Darouiche RO. Treatment of infections associated with surgical implants. N Engl J Med 2004;350:14221429.
  • 22
    Bratzler DW, Houck PM. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgery: An advisory statement from the National Surgical Infection Prevention Project. Am J Surg 2005;189:395404.
  • 23
    Dwivedi SK, Saran RK, Khera P., et al. Short-term (48 hours) versus long-term (7 days) antibiotic prophylaxis for permanent pacemaker implantation. Indian Heart J 2001 53: 740742.
  • 24
    Plumb DC. Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook, 5th ed. Stockholm : PharmaVet 2005; 210212.
  • 25
    Chua JD, Wilkoff BL, Lee I., et al. Diagnosis and management of infections involving implantable electrophysiologic cardiac devices. Ann Intern Med 2000; 133:604608.
  • 26
    Roy D., Grove DI. Efficacy of long-term antibiotic suppressive therapy in proven or suspected infected abdominal aortic grafts. J Infect 2000;40:184204.
  • 27
    Myles O., Thomas WJ, Daniels JT, et al. Infected endovascular stents managed with medical therapy alone. Catheter Cardiovasc Intervent 2000;51:471476.
  • 28
    Baddour LM. Long-term suppressive antimicrobial therapy for intravascular device-related infections. Am J Med Sci 2001;322:209212.
  • 29
    Enia F., Lo Mauro R., Meschisi F., et al. Right-sided infective endocarditis with acquired tricuspid valve stenosis associated with transvenous pacemaker: A case report. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1991;14:10931097.
  • 30
    Hagers Y., Koole M., Schoors D., et al. Tricuspid stenosis: A rare complication of pacemaker-related endocarditis. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2000; 13:6668.
  • 31
    Nisanci Y., Yilmaz E., Oncul A., et al. Predominant tricuspid stenosis secondary to bacterial endocarditis in a patient with permanent pacemaker and balloon dilatation of the stenosis. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 1999;22:393396.
  • 32
    Garrote C., Fidalgo ML, Iglesias-Garriz I., et al. Tricuspid stenosis after pacemaker implantation without evidence of bacterial endocarditis. A case report. Rev Esp Cardiol 2002: 55: 988990.
  • 33
    Heaven DJ, Henein MY, Sutton R. Pacemaker lead related tricuspid stenosis: A report of two cases. Heart 2000: 83: 351352.
  • 34
    Old WD, Paulsen W., Lewis SA, et al. Pacemaker leadinduced tricuspid stenosis: Diagnosis by Doppler echocardiography. Am Heart J 1989; 117:11651167.
  • 35
    Taira K., Suzuki A., Fujino A., et al. Tricuspid valve stenosis related to subvalvular adhesion of pacemaker lead: a case report. J Cardiol 2006;47:301306.