Clinical Sciences, Foster Hospital for Small Animals, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA.
Canine Dal Blood Type: A Red Cell Antigen Lacking in Some Dalmatians
Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008
© 2007 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 21, Issue 2, pages 281–286, March 2007
How to Cite
Blais, M.-C., Berman, L., Oakley, D. A. and Giger, U. (2007), Canine Dal Blood Type: A Red Cell Antigen Lacking in Some Dalmatians. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 21: 281–286. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2007.tb02961.x
- Issue published online: 5 FEB 2008
- Article first published online: 5 FEB 2008
- Submitted May 18, 2006; Revised July 17, 2006; Accepted August 31, 2006.
- Blood compatibility;
- Dog erythrocyte antigen;
Background:Based upon alloantibodies produced after sensitizing dogs with transfused blood, more than a dozen blood group systems have been recognized thus far, and some have been classified as dog erythrocyte antigens (DEA).
Hypothesis:A new canine red cell antigen was suspected, based on the development of specific alloantibodies in a Dalmatian previously sensitized by blood transfusions.
Animals:Twenty-six Dalmatians (including 1 Dalmatian in need of blood compatibility studies); 55 canine blood donors.
Methods:Serologic tests, including blood typing, crossmatching, and direct Coombs' test were performed by standard tube techniques and a novel gel column technology adapted from human blood banking.
Results:By day 40 after transfusion of an anemic Dalmatian, all major crossmatch tests to 55 non-Dalmatian dogs were incompatible. The 2 initial donors, who were compatible before transfusion, were also now incompatible, suggesting the development of an alloantibody to a common red cell antigen. No siblings were available, but 4 of 25 unrelated Dalmatians were crossmatch compatible, suggesting that they were missing the same red cell antigen. The patient was blood typed DEA 1.1, 3, 4, and 5 positive, but DEA 7 negative. Further blood typing and crossmatching results did not support an association to any of these known blood types. The alloantibodies produced were determined to be of the immunoglobulin G class.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Based upon the identification of an acquired alloantibody in a Dalmatian, a presumably new common blood type named Dal was identified. Dalmatians lacking the Dal antigen are likely at risk of delayed and acute hemolytic transfusion reactions.