This review describes the advantages and disadvantages of radiography, ultrasonography, and nuclear medicine in the 2 most frequent thyroid pathologies of the dog: acquired primary hypothyroidism and thyroid neoplasia. Ultrasonography and scintigraphy remain the 2 most indicated imaging modalities for these thyroid abnormalities. However, as in human medicine, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also have potential indications. This is especially the case in the evaluation of the extent, local invasiveness, and local or distant metastases of thyroid neoplasia. Based on experience with different imaging modalities in people, we suggest future directions in the imaging of the canine thyroid gland.