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    McClellan WM, Langston RD, Presley R. Medicare patients with cardiovascular disease have a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease and a high rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:19121919.
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    Shlipak MG, Smith GL, Rathore SS, et al. Renal function, digoxin therapy, and heart failure outcomes: Evidence from the digoxin intervention group trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:21952203.
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    Weiner DE, Tighiouart H., Amin MG, et al. Chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: A pooled analysis of community-based studies. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:13071315.
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    Seymour AA, Burkett DE, Asaad MM, et al. Hemodynamic, renal, and hormonal effects of rapid ventricular pacing in conscious dogs. Lab Anim Sci 1994;44:443452.
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    Wada A., Ohnishi M., Tsutamoto T., et al. Chronic effects of an endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitor on cardiorenal and hormonal function in heart failure. Clin Sci 2002;103(Suppl 48):254S257S.
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    Di Bartola S. Clinical approach and laboratory evaluation of renal disease. In: EttingerSJ, FeldmanEC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 2000: 16001614.
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    Braun JP, Lefebvre HP, Watson AD. Creatinine in the dog: A review. Vet Clin Pathol 2003;32:162179.
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    Atkins CE, Brown WA, Coats JR, et al. Effects of long-term administration of enalapril on clinical indicators of renal function in dogs with compensated mitral regurgitation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:654658.
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    Pouchelon JL, King J., Martignoni L., et al. Long-term tolerability of benazepril in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Cardiol 2004;6:713.
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    Boswood A., Murphy A. The effect of heart disease, heart failure and diuresis on selected laboratory and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. J Vet Cardiol 2006;8:19.
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    Chetboul V., Athanassiadis N., Concordet N., et al. Observer-dependent variability of quantitative clinical endpoints: The example of canine echocardiography. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2004;27:4956.
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    Thomas WP, Gaber CE, Jacobs GJ, et al. Recommendations for standards in transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiog-raphy in the dog and cat. Echocardiography Committee of the Specialty of Cardiology, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. J Vet Intern Med 1993: 7: 247252.
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    Hanson K., Häggström J., Kvart C., Lord P. Left atrial to aortic root indices using two-dimensional and M-mode echocardi-ography in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with and without left atrial enlargement. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2002;43:568575.
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    Muzzi RAL, de Araújo RB, Muzzi LAL, et al. Regurgitant jet area by Doppler color flow mapping: Quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitation severity in dogs. J Vet Cardiol 2003;5:3338.
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    Stepien RL, Rapoport GS, Henik RA, et al. Comparative diagnostic test characteristics of oscillometric and Doppler ultra-sonographic methods in the detection of systolic hypertension in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17:6572.
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    Watson AD, Lefebvre HP, Concordet D., et al. Plasma exogenous creatinine clearance test in dogs: Comparison with other methods and proposed limited sampling strategy. J Vet Intern Med 2002;16:2233.
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    Medaille C., Trumel C., Concordet D., et al. Comparison of plasma/serum urea and creatinine concentrations in the dog: A 5-year retrospective study in a commercial veterinary clinical pathology laboratory. J Vet Med A 2004;51:119123.
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    Häggström J., Hansson K., Karlberg BE, et al. Effects of long-term treatment with enalapril or hydralazine on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and fluid balance in dogs with naturally acquired mitral valve regurgitation. Am J Vet Res 1996;57:16451652.
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    Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, Jacob F., Ross S. Chronic renal failure. In: EttingerSJ, FeldmanEC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia , PA : WB Saunders; 2000: 16341662.
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    Finco DR, Brown SA, Crowell WA, et al. Effects of aging and dietary protein intake on uninephrectomized geriatric dogs. Am J Vet Res 2004;55:12821290.
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    Lohmeier TE, Mizelle HL, Reinhart GA, Montani JP. Influence of angiotensin on the early progression of heart failure. Am J Physiol 2000;278:R74R86.
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    Finco DR, Duncan JR. Evaluation of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations as indicators of renal dysfunction: A study of 111 cases and a review of related literature. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1976;168:593601.
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    Gleadhill A. Evaluation of screening tests for renal insufficiency in the dog. J Small Anim Pract 1994;35:391396.
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    Upadhyay A., Jaber BL, Madias NE. Incidence and prevalence of hyponatremia. Am J Med 2006;119:S30S35.