• 1
    Paterson DL. Resistance in Gram-negative bacteria: Enterobacteriaceae. Am J Med 2006;119:S20S28.
  • 2
    National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS). System report, data summary from January 1992 through June 2004, issued October 2004. Am J Infect Control 2004;32:470485.
  • 3
    Prescott JF, Hanna WJ, Reid-Smith R, et al. Antimicrobial drug use and resistance in dogs. Can Vet J 2002;43:107116.
  • 4
    Ogeer-Gyles JS, Mathews KA, Boerlin P. Nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance in critical care medicine. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2006;16:118.
  • 5
    Sidjabat HE, Hanson ND, Smith-Moland E, et al. Identification of plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum and AmpC {beta}-lactamases in Enterobacter spp. isolated from dogs. J Med Microbiol 2007;56:426434.
  • 6
    Sidjabat HE, Townsend KM, Hanson ND, et al. Identification of bla(CMY-7) and associated plasmid-mediated resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital in Australia. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;57:840848.
  • 7
    Sidjabat HE, Townsend KM, Lorentzen M, et al. Emergence and spread of two distinct clonal groups of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in a veterinary teaching hospital in Australia. J Med Microbiol 2006;55:11251134.
  • 8
    Sanchez S, McCrackin Stevenson MA, Hudson CR, et al. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates associated with nosocomial infections in dogs. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:35863595.
  • 9
    Johnson JA. Nosocomial Infections. Vet Clin Small Anim Prac 2002;32:11011126.
  • 10
    NCCLS. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Test; Approved Standards, M2-A7. Pennsylvania: NCCLS; 2000.
  • 11
    Chen YM, Wright PJ, Lee CS, et al. Uropathogenic virulence factors in isolates of Escherichia coli from clinical cases of canine pyometra and feces of healthy bitches. Vet Microbiol 2003;94:5769.
  • 12
    Litster A, Moss SM, Honnery M, et al. Prevalence of bacterial species in cats with clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease: Recognition of Staphylococcus felis as a possible feline urinary tract pathogen. Vet Microbiol 2007;121:182188.
  • 13
    Barsanti JA. Genitourinary infections. In: Greene, CE, ed. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. St Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2006:935961.
  • 14
    Osterblad M, Hakanen A, Manninen R, et al. A between-species comparison of antimicrobial resistance in enterobacteria in fecal flora. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:14791484.
  • 15
    Johnson JR, Clabots C. Sharing of virulent Escherichia coli clones among household members of a woman with acute cystitis. Clin Infect Dis 2006;43:e101e108.
  • 16
    Trott DJ, Filippich LJ, Bensink JC, et al. Canine model for investigating the impact of oral enrofloxacin on commensal coliforms and colonisation with multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli. J Med Microbiol 2004;53:15.
  • 17
    Van Den Bogaard AE, Stobberingh EE. Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics. Links between animals and humans. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2000;14:327335.
  • 18
    Tenover FC, Arbeit RD, Goering RV, et al. Interpreting chromosomal DNA restriction patterns produced by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis: Criteria for bacterial strain typing. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:22332239.
  • 19
    Seguin MA, Vaden SL, Altier C, et al. Persistent urinary tract infections and reinfections in 100 dogs (1989–1999). J Vet Intern Med 2003;17:622631.
  • 20
    Stiffler KS, Stevenson MA, Sanchez S, et al. Prevalence and characterization of urinary tract infections in dogs with surgically treated type 1 thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Vet Surg 2006;35:330336.
  • 21
    Bubenik LJ, Hosgood GL, Waldron DR, et al. Frequency of urinary tract infection in catheterized dogs and comparison of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing results for catheterized and noncatheterized dogs with urinary tract infections. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;231:893899.
  • 22
    Dowling PM. Antimicrobial therapy of urinary tract infections. Can Vet J 1996;37:438441.
  • 23
    Greene CE, Hartmann K, Calpin J. Antimicrobial Drug Formulary, 3rd ed. St Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier; 2006.
  • 24
    May C. Management of bacterial osteomyelitis in dogs and cats. Int Pract 2002;24:330337.
  • 25
    Yunis AA. Chloramphenicol toxicity: 25 years of research. Am J Med 1989;87:44N48N.
  • 26
    Bush K. Beta-lactamase inhibitors from laboratory to clinic. Clin Microbiol Rev 1988;1:109123.