• Cancer;
  • Canine;
  • Hemostasis;
  • Hypercoagulability;
  • Hypocoagulability

Background: Abnormal routine coagulation assay results have been reported to be common in veterinary patients with neoplasia, but the overall hemostatic functional state, including hypercoagulability, has not been described.

Hypothesis: The overall hemostatic functional state, including hypercoagulability, can be assessed in dogs with neoplasia by tissue factor (TF)-activated thromboelastography (TEG).

Animals: Thirty-six dogs with malignant neoplasia and 13 dogs with benign neoplasia presented to the Small Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital, The University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Methods: Prospective study evaluating the overall hemostatic functional state in dogs with neoplasia by a newly validated TF-activated TEG assay and routine coagulation parameters activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, and D-dimer concentration.

Results: Hemostatic dysfunction was observed in 28/49 (57%) dogs with neoplasia. Twenty-four were dogs with malignant neoplasia, the majority of which 18/36 (50%) were hypercoagulable, whereas 6/36 (17%) were hypocoagulable. All hypocoagulable dogs had metastatic disease. The proportion of dogs with altered hemostasis was significantly different between dogs with malignant and benign neoplasia.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance: TF-activated TEG detected hypercoagulable and hypocoagulable states in this population of dogs with neoplasia. The most common hemostatic abnormality in dogs with malignant neoplasia was hypercoagulability. These findings suggest that this novel hemostatic function test may be of value as a cage side method for the assessment of overall hemostatic function in dogs with cancer, including the detection of both hyper- and hypocoagulable states as well as mixed disorders.