• 1
    Buchanan JW. Prevalence of cardiovascular disorders. In: FoxPR, SissonD, MoiseNS., eds. Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1999:457470.
  • 2
    American Veterinary Medical Association Website. Care for animals pet health-canine illnesses. Available at: Accessed January 2, 2007.
  • 3
    American Veterinary Medical Association. Total pet ownership and pet population. In: U.S. Pet Ownership & Demographics Sourcebook. Schaumburg, IL: AVMA; 2002:630.
  • 4
    Freeman LM, Rush JE, Kehayias JJ, et al. Nutritional alterations and the effect of fish oil supplementation in dogs with heart failure. J Vet Intern Med 1998;12:440448.
  • 5
    Freeman LM, Roubenoff R. Nutrition implications of cardiac cachexia. Nutr Rev 1994;52:340347.
  • 6
    Anker SD, Ponikowski P, Varney S, et al. Wasting as independent risk factor for mortality in chronic heart failure. Lancet 1997;349:10501053.
  • 7
    Anker SD, Negrassa A, Coats AJS, et al. Prognostic importance of weight loss in chronic heart failure and the effect of treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: An observational study. Lancet 2003;361:10771083.
  • 8
    Lund EM, Armstrong PJ, Kirk CA, Klausner JS. Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in adult dogs from private US veterinary practices. Int J Appl Res Vet Med 2006;4:177186.
  • 9
    Alexander JK. The heart and obesity. In: SchlantRC, AlexanderRW., eds. The Heart, 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc; 1994:19371942.
  • 10
    Bach JF, Rozanski EA, Bedenice D, et al. Association of expiratory airway dysfunction with marked obesity in healthy adult dogs. Am J Vet Res 2007;68:670675.
  • 11
    Freeman LM, Rush JE. Nutritional management of cardiac disease. In: EttingerSJ., ed. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2005:579583.
  • 12
    Curtis JP, Selter JG, Wang Y, et al. The obesity paradox: Body mass index and outcomes in patients with heart failure. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:5561.
  • 13
    Horwich TB, Fonorow GC, Hamilton MA, et al. The relationship between obesity and mortality in patients with heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;38:789795.
  • 14
    Lavie CJ, Osman AF, Milani RV, et al. Body composition and prognosis in chronic systolic heart failure: The obesity paradox. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:891895.
  • 15
    Davos CH, Doehner W, Rauchhaus M, et al. Body mass and survival in patients with chronic heart failure without cachexia: The importance of obesity. J Cardiac Failure 2003;9:2935.
  • 16
    Fonarow GC, Srikanthan P, Costanzo MR, et al. An obesity paradox in acute heart failure: Analysis of body mass index and inhospital mortality for 108927 patients in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry. Am Heart J 2007;153:7481.
  • 17
    Laflamme DP. Development and validation of a body condition score system for dogs. Canine Pract 1997;22:1015.
  • 18
    Habbu A, Lakkis NM, Dokainish The obesity paradox: Fact or fiction? Am J Cardiol 2006;98:944948.
  • 19
    Adams KF, Schatzkin A, Harris TB, et al. Overweight, obesity, and mortality in a large prospective cohort of persons 50 to 71 years old. New Engl J Med 2006;355:763778.
  • 20
    Kenchaiah S, Pocock SJ, Wang D, et al. Body mass index and prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 2007;116:627636.
  • 21
    Smith CE, Freeman LM, Rush JE, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in Boxer dogs with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:265273.
  • 22
    Brady CA, Hughes D, Drobatz KJ. Association of hyponatremia and hyperglycemia with outcome in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2004;14:177182.
  • 23
    Chin MH, Goldman L. Correlates of major complications or death in patients admitted to the hospital with congestive heart failure. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:18141820.
  • 24
    Kosiborod M, Curtis JP, Wang Y, et al. Anemia and outcomes in patients with heart failure: A study from the National Heart Care Project. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:22372244.
  • 25
    Cohn JN, Johnson GR, Shabetai R, et al. Ejection fraction, peak exercise oxygen consumption, cardiothoracic ratio, ventricular arrhythmias, and plasma norepinephrine as determinants of prognosis in heart failure. The V-HeFT VA Cooperative Studies Group. Circulation 1993;87:VI-5VI-16.
  • 26
    Mallery KF, Freeman LM, Harpster NK, Rush JE. Factors contributing to the euthanasia decision in dogs with congestive heart failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:12011204.