Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Epistaxis in Natural Canine Leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum)
Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
Copyright © 2008 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 22, Issue 4, pages 866–872, July–August 2008
How to Cite
Petanides, T.A., Koutinas, A.F., Mylonakis, M.E., Day, M.J., Saridomichelakis, M.N., Leontides, L.S., Mischke, R., Diniz, P., Breitschwerdt, E.B., Kritsepi, M., Garipidou, V.A., Koutinas, C.K. and Lekkas, S. (2008), Factors Associated with the Occurrence of Epistaxis in Natural Canine Leishmaniasis (Leishmania infantum). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 22: 866–872. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0129.x
- Issue published online: 4 JUL 2008
- Article first published online: 28 JUN 2008
- Submitted December 8, 2007; Revised February 25, 2008; Accepted April 23, 2008.
Background: Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a common cause of epistaxis in dogs residing in endemic areas. The pathogenesis of CanL-associated epistaxis has not been fully explored because of the limited number of cases reported so far.
Hypothesis: Epistaxis in CanL could be attributed to more than 1 pathomechanism such as hemostatic dysfunction, biochemical abnormalities, chronic rhinitis, and coinfections occurring in various combinations.
Animals: Fifty-one dogs with natural CanL.
Methods: The allocation of 51 dogs in this cross-sectional study was based on the presence (n = 24) or absence (n = 27) of epistaxis. The potential associations among epistaxis and concurrent infections (Ehrlichia canis, Bartonella spp., and Aspergillus spp.), biochemical and hemostatic abnormalities, and nasal histopathology were investigated.
Results: Hypergammaglobulinemia (P= .044), increased serum viscosity (P= .038), decreased platelet aggregation response to collagen (P= .042), and nasal mucosa ulceration (P= .039) were more common in the dogs with epistaxis than in those without epistaxis. The other significant differences between the 2 groups involved total serum protein (P= .029) and γ-globulin (P= .013) concentrations, which were higher, and the percentage platelet aggregation to collagen, which was lower (P= .012) in the epistaxis dogs.
Clinical Importance: CanL-associated epistaxis appears to be the result of multiple and variable pathogenetic factors such as thrombocytopathy, hyperglobulinemia-induced serum hyperviscosity, and nasal mucosa ulceration.