• 1
    Fall PJ, Szerlip HM. Lactic acidosis: From sour milk to septic shock. J Intensive Care Med 2005;20:255271.
  • 2
    Luft FC. Lactic acidosis update for critical care clinicians. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001;17:S15S19.
  • 3
    Weil MH, Afifi AA. Experimental and clinical studies on lactate and pyruvate as indicators of the severity of acute circulatory failure (shock). Circulation 1970;41:9891001.
  • 4
    Englehart MS, Schreiber MA. Measurement of acid-base resuscitation endpoints: Lactate, base deficit, bicarbonate or what? Curr Opin Crit Care 2006;12:569574.
  • 5
    Tappy L, Chioléro R. Substrate utilization in sepsis and multiple organ failure. Crit Care Med 2007;35:S531S534.
  • 6
    Armstrong L, Stenson BJ. Use of umbilical cord blood gas analysis in the assessment of the newborn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2007;92:F430F434.
  • 7
    Gore DC, Jahoor F, Hibbert JM, et al. Lactic acidosis during sepsis is related to increased pyruvate production, not deficits in tissue oxygen availability. Ann Surg 1996;224:97102.
  • 8
    Duke TD, Butt W, South M. Predictors of mortality and multiple organ failure in children with sepsis. Intensive Care Med 1997;23:684692.
  • 9
    Shah S, Tracy M, Smyth J. Postnatal lactate as an early predictor of short-term outcome after intrapartum asphyxia. J Perinatol 2004;24:1620.
  • 10
    Da Silva S, Hennebert N, Denis R, Wayenberg JL. Clinical value of a single postnatal lactate measurement after intrapartum asphyxia. Acta Paediatr 2000;89:320323.
  • 11
    Moore JN, Owen RR, Lumsden JH. Clinical evaluation of blood lactate levels in equine colic. Equine Vet J 1976;14:4954.
  • 12
    Gossett KA, Cleghorn B, Martin GS, et al. Correlation between anion gap, blood l lactate concentration and survival in horses. Equine Vet J 1987;19:2930.
  • 13
    Lagutchik S, Ogilvie GK, Wingfield WE, et al. Lactate kinetics in veterinary critical care: A review. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 1996;6:8195.
  • 14
    Hughes D, Rozanski ER, Shofer FS, et al. Effect of sampling site, repeated sampling, pH, and PCO2 on plasma lactate concentration in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 1999;60:521524.
  • 15
    Chrusch C, Bands C, Bose D, et al. Impaired hepatic extraction and increased splanchnic production contribute to lactic acidosis in canine sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000;161:517526.
  • 16
    Corley KTT. Monitoring and treating haemodynamic disturbances in critically ill neonatal foals. Part 1: Haemodynamic monitoring. Equine Vet Educ 2002;14:270279.
  • 17
    Corley KTT, Donaldson LL, Furr MO. Arterial lactate concentration, hospital survival, sepsis and SIRS in critically ill neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 2005;37:5359.
  • 18
    Henderson ISF, Franklin RP, Wilkins PA, et al. Association of hyperlactatemia with age, diagnosis and survival in equine neonates. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008;18:496502.
  • 19
    Stacpoole PW, Wright EC, Baumgartner TG, et al. Natural history and course of acquired lactic acidosis in adults. DCA-Lactic Acidosis Study Group. Am J Med 1994;97:4754.
  • 20
    Sankoff JD, Goyal M, Gaieski DF, et al. Validation of the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score in patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Crit Care Med 2008;36:422427.
  • 21
    Shapiro NI, Howell MD, Talmor D, et al. Serum lactate as a predictor of mortality in emergency department patients with infection. Ann Emerg Med 2005;45:524528.
  • 22
    Trzeciak S, Dellinger RP, Chansky ME, et al. Serum lactate as a predictor of mortality in patients with infection. Intensive Care Med 2007;33:970977.
  • 23
    Levy B, Gibot S, Franck P, et al. Relation between muscle Na_K_ ATPase activity and raised lactate concentrations in septic shock: A prospective study. Lancet 2005;365:871875.
  • 24
    Bakker J, Gris P, Coffernils M, et al. Serial blood lactate levels can predict the development of multiple organ failure following septic shock. Am J Surg 1996;171:221226.
  • 25
    Levraut J, Ichai C, Petit I, et al. Low exogenous lactate clearance as an early predictor of mortality in normolactatemic critically ill septic patients. Crit Care Med 2003;31:705710.
  • 26
    Nguyen HB, Rivers EP, Knoblich BP, et al. Early lactate clearance is associated with improved outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock. Crit Care Med 2004;32:16371642.
  • 27
    Evans DL, Golland LC. Accuracy of Accusport for measurement of lactate concentrations in equine blood and plasma. Equine Vet J 1996;28:398402.
  • 28
    Schulman ML, Nurton JP, Guthrie AJ. Use of the Accusport semi-automated analyser to determine blood lactate as an aid in the clinical assessment of horses with colic. J S Afr Vet Assoc 2001;72:1217.
  • 29
    Tennent-Brown BS, Wilkins PA, Lindberg S, et al. Assessment of a point-of-care lactate monitor in emergency admissions of adult horses to a referral hospital. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:10901098.
  • 30
    Hollis AR, Wilkins PA, Palmer JE, et al. Bacteremia in equine neonatal diarrhea: A retrospective study (1990–2007). J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:12031209.
  • 31
    Marsh P, Palmer J. Bacterial isolates from blood and their susceptibility patterns in critically ill foals: 543 cases (1991–1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:16081610.
  • 32
    Cohen ND. Causes of and farm management factors associated with disease and death in foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1994;204:16441651.
  • 33
    Corley K, Pearce G, Magdesian K, et al. Bacteraemia in neonatal foals: Clinicopathological differences between Gram-positive and Gram-negative infections, and single organism and mixed infections. Equine Vet J 2007;39:8489.
  • 34
    Valenza F, Aletti G, Fossali T, et al. Lactate as a marker of energy failure in critically ill patients: Hypothesis. Crit Care 2005;9:588593.