• 1
    Gibson S, Hartman D, Schenck J. The endocrine response to critical illness: Update and implications for emergency medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2005;23:909929.
  • 2
    Marik P, Zaloga G. Adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill: A new look at an old problem. Chest 2002;122:17841796.
  • 3
    Aneja R, Carcillo J. What is the rationale for hydrocortisone treatment in children with infection-related adrenal insufficiency and septic shock? Arch Dis Child 2007;92:165169.
  • 4
    Annane D, Maxime V, Ibrahim F, et al. Diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in severe sepsis and septic shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:13191326.
  • 5
    Annane D, Sebille V, Troche G, et al. A 3 level prognostic classification in septic shock based on cortisol levels and cortisol response to corticotropin. J Am Med Assoc 2000;283:10381045.
  • 6
    Cooper M, Steward P. Corticosteroid insufficiency in acutely ill patients. N Engl J Med 2003;348:727734.
  • 7
    Loisa P, Rinne T, Kaukinen S. Adrenocortical function and multiple organ failure in severe sepsis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2002;46:145151.
  • 8
    Beishuizen A, Thijs L. The immunoneuroendocrine axis in critical illness: Beneficial adaptation or neuroendocrine exhaustion? Curr Opin Crit Care 2004;10:461467.
  • 9
    Lipiner-Friedman D, Sprung C, Laterre P, et al. Adrenal function in sepsis: The retrospective Corticus cohort study. Crit Care Med 2007;35:10121018.
  • 10
    Marik P, Zaloga G. Adrenal insufficiency during septic shock. Crit Care Med 2003;31:141145.
  • 11
    Marik P, Pastores S, Annane D, et al. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: Consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med 2008;36:19371949.
  • 12
    Pizarro C, Troster E, Damiani D, et al. Absolute and relative adrenal insufficiency in children with septic shock. Crit Care Med 2005;33:855859.
  • 13
    Soni A, Pepper G, Wyrwinski P, et al. Adrenal insufficiency occurring during septic shock: Incidence, outcome, and relationship to peripheral cytokine levels. Am J Med 1995;98:266271.
  • 14
    Watterberg K. Adrenocortical function and dysfunction in the fetus and neonate. Semin Neonatol 2004;9:1321.
  • 15
    Marik P. Critical illness related corticosteroid insufficiency: Going beyond adrenal insufficiency. Chest 2009;135:181193.
  • 16
    Asare K. Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill patient. Pharmacotherapy 2007;27:15121528.
  • 17
    Kozyra E, Wax R, Burry L. Can 1 ug of cosyntropin be used to evaluate adrenal insufficiency in critically ill patients? Ann Pharmacother 2005;39:691698.
  • 18
    Siraux V, De Backer D, Yalavatti G, et al. Relative adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock: Comparison of low-dose and conventional corticotropin tests. Crit Care Med 2005;33:24792486.
  • 19
    Nathanielsz P, Rossdale P, Silver M, et al. Studies on fetal, neonatal, and maternal cortisol metabolism in the mare. J Reprod Fertil 1975;23 (Suppl):625630.
  • 20
    Ousey J, Rossdale P, Fowden A, et al. Effects of manipulating intrauterine growth on post natal adrenocortical development and other parameters of maturity in neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 2004;36:616621.
  • 21
    Silver M, Fowden A. Prepartum adrenocortical maturation in the fetal foal: Responses to ACTH. J Endocrinol 1994;142:417425.
  • 22
    Silver M, Ousey J, Dudan F, et al. Studies on equine prematurity 2: Post natal adrenocortical activity in relation to plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and catecholamine levels in term and premature foals. Equine Vet J 1984;16:278286.
  • 23
    Brown E, Coghlan J, Hardy K, et al. Aldosterone, corticosterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, and 11 deoxycorticosterone concentrations in the blood of chronically catheterised ovine fetuses: Effect of ACTH. Acta Endocrinol 1978;88:364374.
  • 24
    Rossdale P, Ousey J. Studies on equine prematurity. 6: Guidelines for assessment of foal maturity. Equine Vet J 1984;16:300302.
  • 25
    Bousquet-Melou A, Formentini E, Picard-Hagen N, et al. The adrenocorticotropin stimulation test: Contribution of a physiologically based model developed in horse for its interpretation in different pathophysiologic situations encountered in man. Endocrinology 2006;147:42814291.
  • 26
    Flisinska-Bojanowska A, Grzelkowska K. Diurnal changes in cortisol level, neutrophil number, and lyzozyme activity in foals during the first 13 weeks of life and in their lactating mothers. J Vet Med 1992;39:641647.
  • 27
    Hart K, Heusner G, Norton N, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis assessment in healthy term neonatal foals utilizing a paired low dose/high dose ACTH stimulation test. J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:344351.
  • 28
    Irvine C, Alexander S. Measurement of free cortisol and the capacity and association constant of cortisol-binding proteins in plasma of foals and adult horses. J Reprod Fertil 1987;35 (Suppl):1924.
  • 29
    Gold J, Divers T, Barton M, et al. Plasma adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin/cortisol ratios in septic and normal-term foals. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:791796.
  • 30
    Hurcombe S, Toribio R, Slovis N, et al. Blood arginine vasopressin, adrenocorticotropin hormone, and cortisol concentrations at admission in septic and critically ill foals and their association with survival. J Vet Intern Med 2008;22:639647.
  • 31
    Brewer B, Koterba A. Development of a scoring system for the early diagnosis of equine neonatal sepsis. Equine Vet J 1988;20:1822.
  • 32
    Hoffman A, Staempfli H, Willan A. Prognostic variables for survival of neonatal foals under intensive care. J Vet Intern Med 1992;6:8995.
  • 33
    Marsh P, Palmer J. Bacterial isolates from blood and their susceptibility patterns in critically ill foals: 543 cases (1991–1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:16081610.
  • 34
    Couetil L, Hoffman A. Adrenal insufficiency in a neonatal foal. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:15941596.
  • 35
    Wong D, Vo D, Alcott C, et al. Baseline plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations and response to low dose ACTH stimulation testing in ill foals. J Am Med Assoc 2009;234:126132.
  • 36
    Brewer B, Koterba A. Development of a scoring system for the early diagnosis of equine neonatal sepsis. Equine Vet J 1988;20:1822.
  • 37
    Corley K, Donaldson L, Furr M. Arterial lactate concentration, hospital survival, sepsis, and SIRS, in critically ill neonatal foals. Equine Vet J 2005;37:5359.
  • 38
    Perkins G, Lamb S, Erb H, et al. Plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentrations and clinical response in horses treated for Cushing's disease with cyprohetadine or pergolide. Equine Vet J 2002;34:679685.
  • 39
    Reimers T, Salerno V, Lamb S. Validation and application of solid phase chemiluminescent immunoassays for diagnosis of endocrine diseases of animals. Comp Haematol Intern 1996;6:170175.
  • 40
    Singh A, Jiang Y, White T, et al. Validation of nonradioactive chemiluminescent immunoassay methods for the analysis of thyroxine and cortisol in blood samples obtained from dogs, cats, and horses. J Vet Diagn Invest 1996;9:261268.
  • 41
    Rai R, Cohen J, Venkatesh B. Assessment of adrenocortical function in the critically ill. Crit Care Resusc 2004;6:123129.
  • 42
    Soliman A, Taman K, Rizk M, et al. Circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentration in normal, appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns versus those with sepsis and respiratory distress: Cortisol response to low-dose and standard-dose ACTH tests. Metabolism 2004;53:209214.
  • 43
    Gold J, Perkins G, Erb H, et al. Cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from septic and healthy neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:482488.
  • 44
    Marik P. Mechanisms and clinical consequences of critical illness associated adrenal insufficiency. Curr Opin Crit Care 2007;13:363369.
  • 45
    Pusterla N, Magdesian K, Mapes S, et al. Expression of molecular markers in blood of neonatal foals with sepsis. Am J Vet Res 2006;67:10451049.
  • 46
    Burkitt J, Haskins S, Nelson R, et al. Relative adrenal insufficiency in dogs with sepsis. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:226231.