Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) belongs to the viral family Circoviridae and to the genus Circovirus. Circoviruses are small, single-stranded nonenveloped DNA viruses that have an unsegmented circular genome. PCV2 is the primary causative agent of several syndromes collectively known as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Many of the syndromes associated with PCVAD are a result of coinfection with PCV2 virus and other agents such as Mycoplasma and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. PCV2 infection is present in every major swine-producing country in the world, and the number of identified cases of PCVAD is rapidly increasing. In the United States, the disease has cost producers an average of 3–4 dollars per pig with peak losses ranging up to 20 dollars per pig. The importance of this disease has stimulated investigations aimed at identifying risk factors associated with infection and minimizing these risks through modified management practices and development of vaccination strategies. This paper provides an overview of current knowledge relating to PCV2 and PCVAD with an emphasis on information relevant to the swine veterinarian.