Parts of the study were presented at the “17. Jahrestagung der Fachgruppe – Innere Medizin und Klinische Labordiagnostik – der DVG,” January 31–Feburary 1, 2009, Berlin, Germany.
Epilepsy in Border Collies: Clinical Manifestation, Outcome, and Mode of Inheritance
Article first published online: 4 JAN 2010
Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume 24, Issue 1, pages 171–178, January/February 2010
How to Cite
Hülsmeyer, V., Zimmermann, R., Brauer, C., Sauter-Louis, C. and Fischer, A. (2010), Epilepsy in Border Collies: Clinical Manifestation, Outcome, and Mode of Inheritance. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24: 171–178. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0438.x
- Issue published online: 4 JAN 2010
- Article first published online: 4 JAN 2010
- Submitted June 5, 2009; Revised September 10, 2009; Accepted October 5, 2009.
- Drug resistance;
Background: There is a lack of data on idiopathic epilepsy (IE) in Border Collies (BCs) in the veterinary literature.
Hypothesis: Genetic epilepsy occurs in BCs and is frequently characterized by a severe clinical course and poor response to medical treatment.
Animals: Forty-nine BCs diagnosed with IE.
Methods: Medical records, seizure data, treatment data, and pedigree information of affected dogs were collected. Cases were classified phenotypically as affected or not affected; mild, moderate, or severe clinical course; active epilepsy (AE) or remission; and drug resistant or not drug resistant.
Results: Clinical manifestations were classified as having a moderate (33%) or severe clinical course (49%), characterized by a high prevalence of cluster seizures and status epilepticus. Survival time was significantly decreased in dogs <2 years of age at seizure onset, and in dogs with a severe clinical course. Drug resistance was apparent in 71% of 24 dogs treated with ≥2 antiepileptic drugs. The epilepsy remission rate was 18%. Median age at onset was significantly higher and initial seizure frequency was significantly lower in dogs with remission compared with dogs with AE. Pedigree analyses indicated a strong genetic founder effect in the appearance of epilepsy, resembling autosomal recessive inheritance.
Conclusion and Clinical Importance: The present study confirms the occurrence of genetically mediated epilepsy with a frequent severe clinical course and drug resistance in BCs. The results provide information about the long-term prognosis of IE in BCs for veterinarians and concerned owners, and may benefit breeders as well.